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^7. /^T^. 



■■'f% '" • • ■<■ ■" 






• *^f"' ■'*. ■ '••'■. •■•■, 



.^ J ^ 



/ 




THE IKI8H WOLF-DOG. 



ijhHuidE Uk greit hoDnd [ the snq/tal of 



TiKrwIUIIilitonso 



DOGS; 



THEIR ORIGIN AND VARIETIES, 



DIRECTIOX8 A8 TO THBIB 



GENERAL MANAGEMENT, 



AND SIMPLE lifBTBDCTlOIfS A8 TO THEIR 



TREATMENT UNDER DISEASE. 



BY 




H. D. RICHARDSON^ 



AUTHOR OP *'THB NATURAL HISTORY OF THE IRISH FOSSIL DEER,*' 

" DOMESTIC FOWL," ETC. ETC. 



WiTB ZU.U8T&&TIOW8 ON WOOD, DRAWjr AHD XWORAVSC BT W. OX.DH&U. 



DUBLIN : 
JAMES M'GLASHAN, 21, D'OLIER-STREET. 

W. S. ORB AND CO., PATERNOSTER-ROW^ liC^^V^^. 
FRA8BR AVD CO. V>l>\W;^%A1iL. 

MDCOCXliTU. 



Dublin : Printed by Edward Bull, fi, Bachelor's-wallc. 



TO 



A. W. BAKER, ESQ., JUNIOR, 



OF BAU.TTOBIV, CO. KILKBVVT. 



Mt ]>eab Sib^ 

Permit me to inscribe to you the following page8> 
with the hope that you will not deem them altogether nnwor- 
thjr of your acceptance. I know that yon are^ like myself, a 
warm friend and admirer of the noble animal whose history 
and habits they are designed to illnstrate ; and trust that you 
will receive, in the spirit in which it is tendered, this, the only 
tribute in my power to offer, in return for the very kind and 
valuable assistance you extended to me in the preparation of 
the work. 

Believe me, my dear Sir, 

Tour grateful Friend, 

H. D. RICHARDSON. 



CONTENTS. 



Origin or the Dou 



CHAPTER I. 



Page. 



CHAPTER n. 



Early History of thk Doe 



13 



CHAPTER III. 
Yarietiss op the Dog — Wild Dogs. 



The Dingo of Australia 
The Karir&h6 of New Zealand 
The Dhole of India 
Jungle Koola 



Page. 
17 
20 
ib. 
21 



Wild Dog of pinna 
Agoara of South America 
Deeb of Egypt 
Wild Dog of South Aftiua 



CHAPTER IV. 

Class I.— Grbyhouhds — SuBOirisioif A. — Bough Greyhounds. 

Irish Wolf-Dog 
Highland Deerhound 
Scottish Greyhound 
Russian Greyhound 

Greyhovitds. 

Common British Greyhound 
Italian Greyhound 



Great Danish Dog 
Spanish Bloodhound 
African Bloodhound 
French Ifatln 
Fenl Dog of St. D(nningo 



21 
22 
ib. 
ib. 



. 26 
40 
43 
ib. 


Persian Greyhound, two sub- varieties 
Greek Greyhound .... 
Arabian Greyhound 


44 

45 

ib. 


CHAPTER V. 






SuB-DiTiBiOH B.— Smooth Greyhounds. 






46 Turkish Greyhound 

48 Tiger-hound of South Americ 


• 
• 


49 
ib. 


CHAPTER VI. 






Seoond Class— Group l 






51 
64 
55 
ib. 
56 


Cattle Dog of Cuba 
Pariah of India 
Mexican Taygote . 
Florida Wolf-Dog . 


• 
• 
• 
• 


67 
68 
ib. 
ib. 



The Talbot . 

The Bloodhound . 

TheStaghound 

The Oriental Hound 

The Faxbouad 

3%0HiBTfer 
neBeggh . 
ne Kerry Betigl9 . 



CHAPTER VII. 

Hounds Properly so called. 

The Otter-hound . 
The Spaaith Pointer 
Tlw FottaeoaMb'SckV&iiKt . 




65 



u 



CONTENTS. 



Tbraikab. 
Pagb. 



The Bussiui Terrier 
The Soottiih, two Tarieties 
The Ide of Skye Terrier 
English Terrier . 
Maltese Terrier 



70 
ib. 
71 
72 
ib. 



Pac 



South American Terrier 
Mexican Prairie Dog 
Tnmapit 
Harlequin Terrier 



CHAPTER VIII. 
Newfoundland, or Wolf-Dog Group. 



Newfoundland Dog 


• 


• 1 


76 


Labrador Dog 


• 


• 4 


77 


Italian or Pyrenean Wolf-Dog 


79 


Pomeranian Dog . 






80 


Hare Indian Dog . 




t 


81 


The Mailed Dog . 






ib. 


Esquimaux Dog . 






ib. 


Siberian Dog 






82 


KamschatkaDog . 






. ib. 



Iceland Dog 

Greenland Dog .... 
Lapland Dog .... 
Shepherd's Dog of Scotland, or Colley 
Shepherd's Dog of England . 
Shepherd's Dog of France 
Drover's Dog .... 
Cur Dog 



CHAPT 

Thb Sp. 

Setter or Land-Spaniel» three varie- 
ties ....-- 85 


ER IX. 

1NIEL8. 

Springer 
Blenheim 


Water Spaniel 

Codcer .... 


87 


King Charles 


Great Bough Water-Dog 
Poodle 


Water 

91 
92 


-Dogs. 

Little Barbet 
Lion Dog 



CHAPTER X. 
Third Great Class. — Mastiffs. 



Dog of Thibet .... 94 
Dog of St. Bernard, or Alpine Mas- 
tiff 96 

Spanish or Cuba Mastiff . 97 



Bull-dog 
Pug-dog 
British Mastiff 



CHAPTER XL 
Mongrels. 



Lurcher 
Ban Dog 
Dropper 
Bull-terrier 
AlicantDog 



101 

ib. 

101 

102 

ib. 



Shock Dog . 
Artois Dog . 
Griffin D(^ . 
Kangaroo Dog 



CHAPTER XII. 



General Management of the Dog, including Cropping, and the 

REMOVAL OF DBWCLAWS ...... 

CHAPTER Xni. 
Diseases of the Dog. 



Babies . 

DBmbMMdjaeu « 
CkaJkerintbeEar . 

Wcarau 




Distemper . 
Dianlusa . 
GottlvenAM . 
How to ble«&. 
Waacte • 



DOGS: 

THEIR NATURAL HISTORY, ETC. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTION — ORIGIN OP THE DOO, 

It is in far remote ages of " The Earth and Animated Nature*' 
that we have to seek for traces of the origin of this noble and 
generous animal, which, while some have placed the lion, and 
some the horse, as the first of quadrupeds, has enjoyed the es- 
pecial privilege and well-merited honour of being, oar excellence, 
the FRIEND OF MAN. This has adhered to him in adversity, since 
the fall, and through all vicissitudes. I should be disposed to 
award to this animal the next successive place to man in the 
scale of, at all events, moral bein^. True that, in physical for- 
mation, the various tribes of Simue and Orans would appear to 
approximate the most closely to humanity ; but in intellectual 
development I think thev will be generaUy conceded to be in^ 
ferior to our noble friena, the doo. 

So nearly akin is the intelligence of the dog to reason, that 
we are sometimes puzzled to account for the actions which re- 
sult firom it. As Pope says, when i^)ostrophizing the elephant — 

•< Twizt that and reaaon, what a nice barrier I 
For ever leparate, yet for ever near." 

Etiay on Man, 

But Pope, among the many poets, has also furnished a very re- 
markable illustration, from its beauty, its celebrity, and, above 
all, the wideness of its scope, of these hi^h prerogatives of the 
dog, of their universality, and also of their repute — I allude to 
that far-famed passage in the "Essay on Man" — 

** Lot the poor Indian, whoee nntutor'd mind 

Seee Ood in Btorms, and heart him In the wind^ 

a » • « « * 

And thinkf, admitted to ihnJt eQ|,\u\ %Vr % 

Hif FAITHFUL DOO th«Il betx \v\xa Qom^'o.i ."^ _ 



2 NATURAL HI8T0BT OV THE DOG. 

The ** many poets'* have been alluded to : yes, from the days 
of Homer, who hymned the fidelity of Argus, the old dog of 
Ulysses, in the Odyssey, to our own times, when Lord Byron, 
in his youth, penned the epitaph upon his faithful fayounte at 
Newstcad ; and the late Tnomas Campbell sang, in one of his 
celebrated ballads, of the old harper by the Sminnon and his 
dog — ^when the simple tale of Colin and his ** poor dog Tray" — 
the old shepherd and the old shepherd's dog — ^was adorned with 
plaintiye yerse. 

The poets of yarious ages and of yarious lands would seem to 
haye delighted in commemorating the yirtues of this fayourite 
animal, perhaps in part, as though they recognized, with poetic 
force of perception in their deyotion to man, something of the 
primal loye with which man once looked up to his Heayenly 
Father and Almighty friend. If I be not mistaken, tibia im- 
pressiye comparison forms the subject of one of Lord Bacon's 
famous "ESSAYS." 

Should it be deemed that this prefatory ** character and eulo- 
^um" of the dog partakes too much of " fayour and afiecticHi," 
IS not, perhaps, scientific enough for a treatise of this nature, I 
still trust that so much may be conceded to a yery zealous au- 
thor in the commencement of his work, and as such eulogistie 
notices are not, though rarely, indeed, so richly merited, un- 
usual in history,* they may, perhaps, be allowed in naturttl htt- 
tory also. Though here, from the nature of the subject, these 
remarks are necessarily placed first, as prefatory, mstead of 
being introduced in the body of the work, yet may I not be ex- 
cused, as the moral amiable qualities of the dog are so remark- 
able and notorious, that they form in themselyes a kind of des- 
cription of the species, a sort of special j^rade of chiyalry, giying 
dogs a rank of honour among ammals m)m the chiyalrous cha- 
racter of their many yirtues — ^yirtues so numerous and so gene- 
rally known and experienced, that were they to receiye a full 
degree of tribute, these remarks would extend to the entire 
limits of my yolume. I therefore humbly craye indulgence 
for thus lingering a little upon this pleasing portion of my 
theme. 

It would appear that for some time, I know not why (un- 
less it be explained on the same principle that caused me os- 
tracising of Aristides, for being called *• The Just"), there has 
been a strange infatuation among natural historians for with- 
holding from the dog his claims to originality of creation — 
for, in short, an "attainder of his lineage ;" nearly all who of 

* Sec Rollin, for iniUnce, tdoAmKni Q^2k\jR%, 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 3 

late have written upon this sujbjecty having zealously endea- 
voured to trace his descent to the treacherous, cowardly, and 
rapacious wolf, that skulking, scavenger-like marauder, the 
jackal, or the crafty and plotting fox ; some even referring for 
his primitive type to the surly hysena, with that animal's unso- 
cial and indomitable congeners. 

Some writers, on the other hand, go so far as to admit, that 
a true and genuine dog was, indeed, originally created among 
the other tnbes of animals ; but they, at the same time, main- 
tain him to have been formed with a wild, unsocial, and savage 
disposition; and to owe his present position as the faithml 
ana valued Mend of man, to uie reclaiming power of ''human 
reason," and to a train of adventitious circumstances long sub- 
sequent to the creation of the animal world, and consequently . 
to the era of his primitive existence. These are the persons 
who love to descant upon, as they are pleased to call it, the 
"glorious, never-to-be-forgotten conquest of reason over in- 
stinct." 

Cuvier has said, speaking of the dog and his supposed subju- 
jgation, " C'est la conquete la plus complete, la plus singuliere, 
et la plus utile que I'homme a faite ;" and his translator, or ra- 
ther commentator, Mr. Griffith,* has re-echoed, apparently with- 
out attempt at inquiry, ** This is the most complete, singular, 
and useful conquest man has made."t Alas ! to this absurd sys- 
tem of blindly following in the wake of the great, we owe much 
of the ignorance which at present envelopes the study of zoo- 
logy. Let but a man, by rendering in some one or more in- 
stances service to science, obtain a certain position in the world 
of letters — a certain name — and, behold 1 we have succeeding 
writers crouching to his dicta as though they were oracular, 
and, without taking the trouble of investigating their correct- 
ness, adopting his opinions, nay, his very errors^ with a blind 
and superstitious reverence. Cuvier was undoubtedly a great, 
a very great naturalist ; his writings are to be read wim re- 
verence and respect, and if we feel disposed to differ from 
his theories, the feeling should only be given way to after the 
most careful examination and research. If facts present an 
equal balance, let us b}r all means abandon our own scepticism, 
and yield to the authority of his master genius ; but if ikcts de- 
cidedly preponderate in favour of our doubt, even his great 
name must not deter us from taking an independent course, and 

» Oriffth*fl CuTier.' 
• t Bnffon h«8 made • remark almost identlad, e^ca Va exf^xeis&oat V3Ci\2A '''' 'Vs^aft^asi*- 
tiott to the Natural HUitorj of the HoRSR.** 

-a ^ 



4 NATURAL HI8TOBT OF THE DOG. 

adopting our own views. Cayier has shown himself a pari 
of human fallibility— 

«t TntHgnnr gi qnaodo boa«i dormitet HooMrai.** 

In the case of the fossil deer of Ireland, for instance, h 
a long time almost deprived us of our claim to the exdi 
possession of that stupendous relic of olden time, by descri 
remains of what he conceived to be the same animal as hi 
been exhumed in France. These remains have since bee 
cognized as belonging to quite a different tribe of <tnifn^p • 
in this instance idso I cannot but observe, that the ver 
vious difference subsisting between the osseous remains o 
animals in question, is sufficient to induce caution towards a 
thor who could thus strangely confound them with each o 
It was left to Colonel Hamilton Smith to expose Cuvier's 
take — ^he alone having the spirit to examine this subject i 
so great a man had once treated of it^ and to remark upoi 
errors which he found. 

To resume, however : so then man boasts of a myste 
control over natural instinct, and that he is able to sal 
reclaim, and conquer for himself what animals he wishes ; 
that he further possesses a power of rendering those anii 
naturally fierce and estranged from his society, his faii 
willinffy and unchangeable servants I Truly it is a pity 
if such a power ever existed, it should be now so ut 
lost. I^ for one, would be glad> indeed, were it still caj 
of beinff exercised. I have spent years in striving to re< 
the wild creatures of the forest ; I have expended irpon i 
my attention and my care ; I have given them much of my i 
my affection and my means ; and yet I have, after all, bat 
ceeded in the partial familiarization of a few individuals, w 
offimring have invariably returned to the intractable, feroc 
and feral habits of their race. And have other experime 
ists fared better ? How else does it happen that the grim 
still prowls amidst the gloomy glades or Ids native forests, 
crafty Reynard still preserves his wild and marauding insti 
and that the stealthy jackal is still but the prowling scave 
of the eastern hamlet ? Why does not the beautiful zebra 
bitually grace the equipages of our cities ? — ^why does not 
graceful gazelle become the happv and contented omai 
of our parks ? Why does the furious bison still roan 
unshackled grandeur, the wilds of his native plains, whil< 
kinsman, the patient ox, drew the baggage of the primeva 
tn'arebs, and the Brahminee bu\l ^odika Va is^^^v^ \s«siQ^ 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE I>00* a 

among the tapes and lawns of Hindostan> and the placid Indian 
cow mmishes her nutritious milk to thousands of Gentoos ? I 
need, I think, hardly observe — as all who read must be already 
aware of the &ict — ^that far more pains have been bestowed upon 
endeayourinff to reclaim these naturally feral creatures, than we 
haye the sli^test proof were eyer bestowed upon the imaginary 
reclamation of those which are asserted to be their descendants* 
"If," says an eloquent writer in Lardner's Cyclopaedia— "if 
this power really had been ^yen to us in the sense the asser- 
tion evidently implies, the tnstinct ofanimids would be under 
the control of man, instead of being immutably fixed by the 
Almighty — ^that power to whom man himself is indebted for 
his faculty of reason : not, indeed, that it might be made, as in 
this instance, an idle and arrogant boast, but that it should be 
used to give honour and reverence to his Maker. The more 
the won£rous works of the Creator are studied, the more will 
this truth become incontestable — ^that it is He only who has 
given to certain animals, or to certain tribes, an innate propen- 
tUy to live, by free choice, near the haunts of man, or to sub- 
BUt themselves cheerfulhf and voiUingly to his domestication." 

Why should we seek to set limits to the power of Him who 
framed the universe ? Why should we seek to affix bounds to 
the power of that Being whose power is infinite ? What posi- 
tive, tangible, or even analo^cal evidence exists that the dog 
was not originally formed at me creation, or that if formed then, 
it was under a &ral type, firom which it was left, by the Su- 
preme, to the inventive powers of man to reclaim him ? Is it 
not far more reasonable to suppose, that a benevolent Deity 
should have formed the dog for the express purpose of becom- 
ing the ever fiuthful, constant friend and companion of man> 
and one who would remain his friend after the unhappy Fall 
should have deprived him of the services or society of other 
animals. This, however, is too much like mere declamation ; 
let us proceed to something more like proof oi my positions. 

In discussing subjects such as the ori^n of the dog, it will 
be evident that direct proof is unattainable ; I must, therefore, 
be satisfied if I confute the arguments on which my opponents 
base their theories ; and then it will be more easy to deduce, 
first, the greater probability, and secondly, the greater plausi- 
bility, of my own views. 

W ith the supposed Lupine or Vulpine origin of this animal 
may be classed the theory which derives him frt)m a feral or 
wild, yet apparently genuine dog. Mr. Hodgson^* for us&tAs^ia^ 



6 NATURAL BISTORT OF THE DOG. '^^ 

liiiiiks that he has discovered a wild dog — ^the buansa — ^to have 
been the primitiye type of the whole canine race. Professor 
Kreischner describes a sort of jackal, preserved in the Frank- 
fort moseomy and puts it forward as the type of the dogs of 
ancient Egypt ; witn many other theorists and savants^ to all of 
whom the reasoning which I hope to adduce irill, I think, ap- 
ply^ as well as to those who uphold the theory of the Lupine or 
Vulpine origin. 

Perhaps the most concise view of the side of the question 
firom which I dissent^ is given by Mr. Bell in his ''British 
Quadrupeds." He says: — ''It is necessary to ascertain to 
what type the animal approaches most nearly^ after haying, for 
many generations, existed in a wild state, removed firom the 
influence of domestication and association with mankind. Now, 
we find there are several instances of the existence of dogs in 
such a state of wildness as to have lost even that common cha- 
racter of domestication, variety of colour and marking. Of 
these, two very remarkable ones are the dhole of India, and the 
dingo of Australia. There is, besides, a half reclaimed race 
among the Indians of North America, and another partially 
tamed in South America, which deserve peculiar attention ; 
and it is found that these races, in different degrees, and in a 
greater degree as they are more wild, exhibit the lank and 
gaunt form, the lengthened limbs, the long and slender muzzle, 
and the great comparative strength, which characterize the 
wolf; and that the tail of the Australian dog, which may be 
considered as tiie most remote from a state of domestication, 
assumes the slightly bushy form of that animal. We have 
here, then, a considerable approximation to a well known wild 
animal of the same genus, in races which, though doubtless de- 
scended firom domesticated ancestors, have gradually assumed 
the wild condition ; and it is worthy of especial remark, that 
the anatomy of the wolf, and its osteology in particular, does 
not differ from that of dogs in general, more than the different 
kinds of dogs do fi'om each other. The cranium is absolutely 
similar, and so are all, or nearly all, the otiier essential parts ; 
and to strengthen still further the probability of their identity, 
the dog and wolf will readily breed together, and their progenv 
is fertfle. The obliquity of the position of the eyes in the wolf 
is one of the characters m which it differs fi'om the dog ; and 
although it is very desirable not to rest too much upon the ef- 
fects of habit or structure, ii is not, perhaps, straining the 
point, to attribute the forward direction of the eyes in the 



doffs to the constant habit, for many succeeding generations, 
7fTookiDg forward to their master, and olicyVxi^^ix^NoHRfc:* ^ 



NATUBAL BI8T0BT OF THE DOG. 



my opinion this mode of accounting for the direction of the eye 
is, to say the yeryleast, rather imaginative tiian philosophical ;* 
but to continue. 

** Another criterion," says Mr. Bell, "and a sound one, is 
the identity of gestation. Sixty-three days form the period 
during which the bitch goes with young, precisely the same 
elapses before the wolf gives birth to her offspring. Upon 
Buffon's instance of seventy-three days — or rather the possibi- 
lity of such a duration in tne gestation of a particular she-wolf 
— ^we do not lay much stress, when opposed to the strong evi- 
dence of the usual period being sixty-uu'ee days. The young 
of both wolf and dog are bom blind ; and at the same, or about 
the same time, viz., about the expiration of the tenth or twelfth 
day, they besin to see. Hunter's important experiments proved, 
without doubt, that the wolf and the jackal would breed with 
the dog ; but he had not sufficient data for coming to the con-» 
elusion that all three were identical as species. In the course 
of these experiments, he ascertained that the jackal went fifty- 
nine days with young, while the wolf went sixty-three ; nor 
does he record that me progeny and the dog would breed to^ 
gether ; and he knew too well the value of the argument to be 
drawn from a fertile progeny not to have dwelt upon the fact 
if he had proved it — not to have mentioned it at least, even if 
he had heard of it." 

Mr. Bell concludes his observations as follows : — " Upon the 
whole, the argument in favour of the view which I have taken, 
that the woli is probably the original of all the canine races, 
may be thus stated. The structure of the animal is identical, 
or so nearly as to afford the strongest a priori evidence in its 
favour. The dog must have been derived from an animal sus- 
ceptible of the highest degree of domestication, and capable of 
great affectipn for mankind, which has been abundantly proved 
of the wolf. Dogs having returned to a wild state, and con- 
tinued in that condition through many generations, exhibit cha- 
racters which approximate more and more to those of the wolf, 
in proportion as the influence of civilization ceases to act. The 
two animab will breed together, and produce fertile young. 
The period of gestation is tne same." 

To this brief and intelligible summary of the points on which 
Mr. Bell bases his opinion, I reply in few words :-^ 

I. — ^The expression nearly identical is too vague for philoso- 
phical discussion, and I consider that I need not therefore re- 

* It ii too like An adaptation of Lord Moii\»ddtf%T!VMBOT3,^\a«— ^fisa^.'oaa^^ 
originaUy itdl§, and irore them away by eonatant littinf^. 



8 NATURAL HI8T0BT OV THB DOG. 

ply to this first position at all. To avoid misoonstructionj however, 
I shall assume that Mr. Bell positively asserts identity of stmc* 
ture. I positively deny it. The intestines of the wolf are 
considerably shorter than those of the dog^ evidently marking 
him as an animal of more strictly carnivorous habits. The or- 
bits are placed higher and more forward in the skulL The 
proportion between the bones of the hind legs differs — so does 
the number of toes. The structure of the teeth is different, 
these being in the wolf much larger, and the molar teeth of the 
upper and under iaw being adapted to each other^ in the wolf, 
in a peculiar sctssorS']ike manner, rendering tl>em infinitely 
more serviceable for breaking bones^a structure not found m 
the dog. 

II. — I deny that the wolf is " susceptible of the highest de^ 
gree ofdamesticatum, and capable of great affection for mankind, 
which has been abundantly proved of the wolf." When has it 
been proved ? I have seen many so-called ** tame wolves^" but 
never one that might be trustea, or that did not, when oppor- 
tunity offered, return to his fierce nature and wild habits. The 
whelps, too, produced by these partially domesHeated wolves^ 
are not in tJie smallest degree innuenced by the domestication 
of their parents. The Royal Zoological Society of Ireland had» 
some years ago, in their gardens, Fhcenix Park, a pair of very 
tame wolves. These pr(^uced young, which became tame like- 
wise, and in their turn produced cubs. The society very kindlv 
presented me with one of the last-mentioned cubs, which, thougn 
only five weeks old when I took him from his dam, was as fierce 
and violent in his own little way as the most savage denizen of 
the forest. I brought up this animal amon^ my dogs; for them 
he conceived a considerable degree of affection, or respect per- 
haps, for submission was tlie most striking feature of his conduct 
towards them ; and was doubtless induced, by the frequent and 
substantial castigations ho received from *< Bevis," a noble dog 
of the true breed of bloodhound; but beyond this he was any- 
thin^ but tame. He never, it is true, exactly dared to attack 
me m front, but he once showed a disposition to do so, when I 
pulled him down by the tail as he was endeavouring to get over 
my garden wall. He, however, on several occasions, charged 
at me from behind, when he thought my attention was other- 
wise engaged. I was, however, invariably on my guard, ever 
carried a good stick, and on these occasions the wolf always 
got the worst of it. He once only succeeded in inflicting a 
severe bite ; and as by this time I had utterly despaired of 
making anything of hini — ^he was about eighteen months old— I 
seni him about bia business. He suba^u^flo^^ t^ Va\A V!ki^ 



MATUBAL HI8T0BT OV THE DOG. 9 

hands of a showman, and assumed his proper position — ^the 
caravan. 

As to dogs, when accident drives them to subsist on their 
own resources, thus rendering them wHd, I ^ant the fact of 
their assuming feral characters ; but as to their thus acquiring, 
in the course of a few generations, the habit and aspect, or the 
general similitude of wolves, I humbly conceive it to be an as- 
sertion only, and one that has yet to be proved. Even such 
d(^s as have been thus driven into feral and independent life, 
will be found ever read^ to acknowledge the control of man, 
and may, with comparatively, little trouble, be induced to re- 
turn to tiieir allegiance to mm. Nor will the whelps of such 
re-domesticated dogs be bom wUd, as is the case with the cubs 
of the tamest wolves. It is in the case of these doss, circum- 
stances, and not natural instinct, that have driven mem wild ; 
and, these circumstances ceasing to operate, domestication re- 
turns. 

I would ask another c[uestion. How does it ha{men that the 
dog is to be met with m every quarter of the globe to which 
man has penetrated, while the true wolf has never yet been met 
with south of the equator? Further, are not several distinct 
species of wolf adnutted to exist? Is there not more than 
one distinct species of wolf admitted by naturalists to exist in 
North America alone ? It has not even been attempted to be 
proved that these species are identical ; their distinctness has 
been more than tacitly admitted. Yet they resemble each other 
far more closely than any wolf does the dog. Has the dog, 
then, been derived from each and all of these wolves, or has the 
original wolf, origin alike of wolf and dog, been yet properly 
indicated ? Should not this fact be duly ascertained prior to 
that in question ? Again, are there not numbers of wild dogs— 
are there not wild canines in South America, Australia, Ara- 
bia, India? — admitted on all hands to be essentially distinct, 
which no naturalist has as yet attempted to deduce from a 
common origin ; yet are not these far more nearly allied to the 
dog than to the wolf? Are there not likewise several admitted 
species of fox ? Why not first clear up these doubtful points, 
ere proceeding to such as are more remote from the point at 
issue? 

I likewise deny that the wolf and the dog will breed together 
in a state of nature. In their native forests they clearfy will 
not, or the wild dog would not still remain distmct from the 
wolf, whose lair is m the immediate neigJiboxn\v<QfiA.<2kl\s!>^^s«^. 
Man's efforts and skiU, com\«iie;9L ^\\v ^T>MsiL ^^'S^'^^'*^''?^^^^^ 
may, indeed^ indace an uinQfa\>eVv^iXi VXi^o^.^^s^"^^**^^^^'^^ 



10 NATUBAL HI8T0RT OF THE DOO. 

shun each other^ and mutaally exhibit a strong natural antipa- 
thy. Nor will these animals — ^the wolf and the dog — ^breed to^ 
f ether, unless one of them, at least, be thoroughly domesticated, 
low else have all attempts to produce a bre^ between the 
wolf and Australian dingo so signally failed? 

Neither is the simple breeding together of animals, and the 
fertility of their offspring, a sufficient proof of identity of spe- 
cies. Some of our uninquiring naturalists, who are satisfied to 
follow quietly in the footsteps of their predecessors, may, doubt- 
less, start at my assertion ; but I am not the less prepared to 
maintain its truth. Mr. Hodgson (Proceedings of Zoological 
Society, 1834) has shown that the capra tharal — ^the goat of 
Nepaul — and the domestic goat breed together. The hunch- 
backed zebu of India will breed with our common cattle, and 
the offspring is prolific. Pallas has stated that in various parts 
of Russia me sheep and the goat have bred together. The 
Chinese and the European pigs, differing, according to Mr. 
Eyton, in important osteological particulars, will do so like- 
wise ; and in tne "Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 1831," 
pa^e 66, we find the same related of the hare and rabbit. To 
this I may add, that the mule, the offspring of the horse and 
ass, has also produced foals. Now, as to fertility of offspring, 
I would beg my zoological readers to observe, mat it will not 
prove identity of species, but merely a close tdlianee, unless, in- 
deed, when that fertility exists, inter se, between the hybrids 
themselves; that the woli and dog, jackal and dog, fox and dog, 
will, if proper pains be taken, breed together, I know, for I have 
proved it ; but I also know that, unless in the case of the wolf 
and fox, the progeny are sterile ; and also that ^ven in those 
cases, although capable of re-producing with either dog, fox, or 
wolf, they are not capable of doing so inter se ; this is an im- 
portant fact, and one that I have not yet seen noticed. 

I might adduce further facts in support of my objections to 
this Lupine or Vulpine theory, but I feel that I have refuted 
it sufficiently ; and, in the language of the bar, I say, " Our 
case rests here." 

I now come to another theory, which has been embraced and 
supported with equal, if not greater ardour, viz. — ^that all the 
known varieties of dog have taken their origin fit)m one origi- 
nally created variety, and that one the shepherd's dog. 

Many naturalists, and these natives of different countries j 

have advanced this theory, and still they have all employed the 

one designation, in indicating their favourite type, viz. — the 

shepherded dog. I must here first take the lib^Tty of md^iirms, 

ti^<^a^ ^^^AereTs dog f — fox shepherd's dogs C^er moaX. TQaXecSaS:^ 



NATURAL &I8TORY OF THE DOG. 11 

from each other. Bufibn — as any gallant Frencfamaa would — 
stood up for the originality of the matin, or shepherd's do^ oi 
his own country. Later writers, all copying more or less from 
him, have adhered to the theory of the sheep-dog origin, while 
they have forgotten the difference which exists between their 
own nationid Sieep-dogs, and those indicated by Buffon. Truly 
there exists but little similitude between the tailless, woolly- 
looking animal, the sheep-dog of England ; the fox-like colley 
of Scotland ; ihe gaunt and short-haired cur of Ireland ; the 
matin of Bufibn ; uie noble, stately, and powerful she^dog of 
the Pyrenees, the guardian of the flocks of the Abruzzi ; 
the gigantic mastifis, the herd-dogs of the Himalaya moun- 
tains ; and, in short, between various other sorts of sheep- 
dog, used for tending flocks in as various portions of the 
known world. Shall we assume the orimnal type to have been 
the sheep-dog or matin of France, or the more graceful colley 
of Scotland ? Are we to believe that a brace of either of these 
dogs were the progenitors of the entire canine race ? Did the 
gigantic boar-dog — ^the noble Newfoundland — ^the courageous 
and powerful mastifl* — the slender and rapid greyhound — ^the 
stunted yet formidable bull-doff — ^the dimmutive and sensitive 
Blenheim spaniel — and the still more diminutive, and now al- 
most extinct, lapdog of Malta — all arise from a brace of curs ? 
If they did, to what now are we to attribute the varieties now 
existing ? We are told, to climate and breeding. As to breed- 
ing, how could it operate when there was but a single pair to 
breed from ? How, if the varieties of dog proceeded but from 
one original type, could development thus be produced extend- 
ing beyond the limits of the faculties and powers proper to that 
type ? Will change of climate ever convert a ffreyhound into 
a bull-dog? WUl it truncate the muzzle, raise the frontal 
bones, enlarge the frontal sinuses', or effect a positive alteration 
of the posterior branches of the lower maxillary bones ? Or 
will change of climate, on the other hand, operate to convert a 
bull-dog into a greyhound, produce a high and slender form, 
diminish the frontal sinuses, deprive tihe animal of the sense of 
smell, at least comparatively, together with courage and other 
moral a nalities depending on organization ? I say nothing ; I 
only ask my intelligent readers do they believe this possible ? 
Thus far a very eminent naturalist. Colonel Hamilton Smitliy 
eoes with me, lumd in hand ; all that I have adduced he admits, 
but here we unfortunately part company. Colonel Smith seeks 
to account for these differences, by caiixs^a Vsl >3ssfc\BXi52c^«s35!&kKss». 
of a supposed admixture o£ 'woAi, ioTL, Qt\r3«»a^^^« Vi&^^- 
nuts an originally formed dog, and ow^ n wsX^ ^'^^ ^ ^'^^^ ^^^^ 



12 NATURAL HlflTORT OF THE DOG.. 

fers for the alterations that have taken place in him to Grossing 
with these wild animals. Now, I consider this theory as even 
less tenable than that of the wolfish or Vulpine origin of the 
dog, as the colonel is obliged to bring several races of wild dogs 
to his aid; and, may I yenture to inquire, where is their ori- 
gin ? Besides this, we have to refer to the decided antipathy 
subsisting between these animals in a state of nature, and thus 
effectually precluding intermLsture, tmless through human in- 
tervention and agency, which clearly was never exerted in that 
condition for this purpose. For my own part, I am content that 
the false theories which have been advanced should be over- 
thrown and confuted ; and I am satisfied to admit that an im- 
penetrable veil of mystery appears to hang over the subject, 
and the suggestions that I am about to advance are submitted 
to my readers with extreme diffidence and reluctance. 

Whether more than one variety of any species of animals was 
formed at the Creation is, perhaps, still a question, though mos^ 
naturalists, I must admit, have peremptorily decided to the 
contrary. I would, for my own part, venture so far as to say 
that, let it be once granted that the dog was iormsA frophetu 
eally by the Creator in order that he might be the finend and 
assistant of man, after the fall should have deprived him of 
the allegiance of other animals, it is scarcely too much to 
suppose that two varieties were then formed. One would 
scarcely seem sufficient for the purpose, while two might have 
been so, and by their intermixture and subsequent breeding, 
we can readily imagine how the other races might have been 
produced. I may fuld that this view is in strict accordance 
with the divisions into which osteological investigation and more 
particularly examination of their skSls, resolve the many varie- 
ties of dog with which we are now acquainted. I do not, how- 
ever, see any necessity for insisting on this point-— I merely 
throw out the suggestion. No one can contradict it, neither 
have we any means of satisfactorily establishing it. An im- 
penetrable veil of mystery hangs over the origin of the dog, that 
X much fear will never be removed until time itself shall be no 
more, and we shall become acquainted with this amongst other 
and, for the present abstruse and dark, mysteries of nature. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 13 



CHAPTER n. 

EABLT HISTORY OF THE DOG. 

That the dog was one of those animals who did not, at the 
'< fall," swerve from their allegiance, but maintained their fide- 
lity to man, can scarcely be questioned. The earlier portions 
of the sacred writings make frequent mention of him, but ever 
as a settled, domestic animal, as one that had ever been so from 
the beginning, and never once hint at his having been reclaimed 
from a wild state. Had he been so reclaimed, I have no doubt 
but it would have been noticed, for a far less important event 
is actually recorded — ^viz,, the discovery of the mode of breed- 
ing the mule ; it is only fair, at the same time, to acknowledge 
that some translators read this word *' warm springs" and not 
mules. We are told that this was that " Anah that found the 
mules in the wilderness, while he was herding his father's asses." 
While herding his father*s asses, if my reading be correct, 
they were, doubtless, visited by a drove of wild coursers ; in- 
tercourse was the consequence, and mules the ultimate result — 
a valuable acquisition, doubtless, to the ass, but still not half 
so valuable as the domestication of so useful an animal as the 
dog would have been. 

In the latter part of the Book of Genesis, we find Jacob, 
when blessing his sons, employing the ferocity of the wolf as a 
familiar simile. In the account of the departure of the Israel- 
ites from Egypt-— an event which occurred about two hundred 
years afterwards — ^wefind the ^og familiarly mentioned, and his 
watchful powers and harking clearly recognized as tilings of 
course. " Nor shall a dog open his mouth." I am aware that 
some may deduce from this very circumstance the opinion that 
the dog was only a reclaimed wolf, unknown to the world until 
the period of the Jews' sojourn in Egypt ; and that the Egyp- 
tians, eminent as they were for art andmvention, had, amongst 
other acquisitions, achieved that of the domestication of me 
wolf, and his conversion into a dog ; I shall not admit any such 
induction, however. After the flood, and at the dispersion of 
the projectors of the tower of BabeU the ^ox\j1 \s>{^\. Ts^sssjc^^sa^a. 
and other acquisitions ihat they \ifetet^ '<5«wir«»^*« •^^^'i^^ 
turns were, as fax as history csoi vaionfi^ "vja^ ^^ %cE^\.'«=k ^^ 



sscox 



14 NATURAL HISTORt OF THE DOO. ' 

themselves into a nation, after that events and to cultiyate the 
arts and sciences, or rather, perhaps, to revive former known, but 
long-neglected studies. 

It is to the Egyptians, contrary indeed to popular opinion, but 
no less certainly, that we owe the possession of the horse, and 
it is likely to tnem also that we owe that of the dog ; this, how- 
ever, does not prove that these animals were not previously in 
a domesticated state, before the flood and the subsec^uent confu- 
sion of tongues at Babel had produced so many strikmg changes, 
and thrown so many valuable branches of uiowledge into the 
gulf of oblivion. 

The few graphic touches with which Solomon, in Proverbs 
XXX. 31, by a compound epithet, like those in Homer, has de- 
scribed a renowned and noble animal, translated "a greyhound," 
invite special notice, in addition to their appropriateness, from 
the recollection of that celebrated monarches fame for knowledge 
of God's works ; as has been recorded in Kings, iv. 33^-** And 
he spake of trees, from the cedar-tree that is in Lebanon, even 
to the hyssop that springeth out of the wall ; he spake also of 
beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes" — 
from which has been taken the beautiful description of him in 
" Heber's Palestine"— 

" He, the sage, whoie restless mind 
Through Nature's mazes wandered unconflned ; 
Who every bird, and beast, and insect knew. 
And spake of every plant that quaffeth dew." 

I think that, from the above passa^ of Proverbs, we may 
infer that the dog had, by Solomon's tune, arrived at many va- 
rieties ; and are not the familiar uses of the dog likewise shown 
forth in Isaiah, Ivi. 10, 11, and in the account of Tobit's dog, in 
the Apocrypha. 

From sacred we may, however, turn to profane history. The 
Egyptians have, from the veir earliest ages, held the dog in 
particular estimation ; and a Irench writer of much ingenuity 
furnishes us with a very plausible reason for their predilection. 
'* The Egyptians," says M. Elzear Blaze, " seeing in the horizon 
a superb star, which appeared always at the precise time when 
the overflowing of the rTDe commenced, gave to it the name of 
Sirius [the Barker], because it appeared to show itself express- 
ly in order to warn the labourer against the inundation. ' This 
Sii'ius is a god,' said they — 'the dog renders us service ; i^ is a 

J;od 1' Its appearance corresponding with the periodical over<- 
bfF of the Nne, the dog soon became regarded &a tlie ^nius of 
tJie river, and the peojSe represented tina ^<&mM&> w ^od^., Nnii>Dk 



NATURAL HIBTOBT OF THE BOG. 15 

the body of a man and the head of a dog. It had also a genea- 
logy ; i^ ^^oclk the name of Anubis^ son of Osiris ; its miage 
was placed at the entrance of the temple of Isis and Osiris, and 
subsequently at the gate of all* the temples of Egypt. The dog 
being the symbol of vigilance, it was thus intended to warn 
princes of their constant dutjr to watch over the welfare of their 
people. The dog was worshipped principally at Hermopolis the 
Great [Chemnis or Ouchmonnein m modem Arabic], and soon 
afterwards in all the towns of Egypt. Juvenal writes : — 

* Oppida tote c&nem ( Jnubim) venerantnr } nemo Diaiuun.* 
[* Whole cities worship the dog C Artubis) ; no one Diana.'] 

At a subsequent period, Cynopolis, the **City of the dog" 
[now Samallout], was built in its honour, and there the priests 
celebrated its festivals in great splendour." 

Other writers say that Anubis was represented as bearing a 
dog's head, because when Osiris proceeded upon his Indian ex- 
pedition, Anubis accompanied hun, clothed in the skin of that 
animal. This, however, is at most very dubious, as many 
writers assert Anubis to have been clothed, on this occasion, 
with the skin of a sheep^ and not that of a dog. Be this as it 
may, the worship of the dog-god rapidly travelled westward, 
and soon became intermingled with the religious rites of other 
nations. Lucan says — 

** Not in templa tnam Boouma accepimns Itin, semicanesqne decs.** 
(*\We have reoeiTed into onr Soman templet thine Itit, and diyinitiet kalf-dog.''*') 

The fireworshq)pers of Persia also paid divine honours to the 
dog, by representing, under his form, the good principle, by 
whose aid they were enabled to repel iJie assaults of the powers 
of evil, and he is still held in deep veneration by the modem 
Parsees. 

The ancient Britons would likewise appea^r to have held the 
diog in high respect, for when desirous oi muning for themselves 
titles of honour or distinction, thev assumed his name. Cu^ in 
the language of the ancient British, signifies a dog, and do we 
not recollect the noble names of Cunobelin, Cynobelin, and 
Canute.* According to an eminent author,! the word Khan^ 
a title of dignity in the East, is identical with Can, and is like- 

* Cannte wat a Dane, and thit an^i«tiTe, thet«fcat«,€bo«% >Sda €tfaM^ «fsKsts£ksi^\!Ki- 
tween the Celtic and Teotonie or SclaTonie. 
t HMmilUta Smith, 



16 MATUBAL HISTORY OF THB DOG. 

wise derived from the idea of a dog. In the Erse, or native 
Irish, the word Cu signifies at once a dog and a champion. 

Even the awful gates of Hades were furnished by the ancknt 
poets with a faithful and formidable guardian in the shape of a 
dog ; but as the task of watching those dreadful precincts was, 
doubtless, regarded as no ordinary one, Cerberus^ the watch- 
dog of the Avernian portals, was awarded three heads instead 
of one, to ensure a triple degree of watchfulness. 

Seldom has the dog brought down obloquy upon his name ; 
but even he, with all his noble qualities, has had his moments 
of frailty. Cerberus himself listened to the promptings of sor- 
did appetite, and, like many another sentinel, accepted of a 
bribe, and betrayed his trust. The watchdogs, too, of the Bo- 
man capitol once slept upon their post— -thus, but for the alarm 
given by the wakeful and clamorous geese, surrendering de- 
voted Rome to the ruthless arm of invading Gaul. A similar 
failure of duty is noticed in Scripture, as occurring amon^ the 
Jewish dogs: — *' His watchmen are blind; they are all igno- 
rant ; they are all dumb dogs ; they cannot bark — sleeping, ly- 
ing down, loving to slumber. Tea, they are greedy dogs, which 
can never have enough." — Isaiah, IvL 10, 11. 

According to De La Vega, the Peruvians likewise formerly 
worshipped the dog, while, singularly enough, they also ate hi^ 
flesh at their festivals ; and, according to a modem authority,* 
this animal is even yet worshipped by the Japanese, under a 
form similar to that of the Egyptian Anubis, and under the 
name of Amida, Nor are we to forget Virgil, who notices this 
noble animal in many passages^ among which I cannot omit the 
following : — 

** Nee tibi <nira canom ftierit postrema : sed unA 
Velooes Spurtae Catuloa acremque Molosram 
Fasce aero Fingui : nunquam custodibna illis 
Nocturnnm Stabulis fUrem, iucursasque Inporumi 
Ant impocatoa a tergo horrebis Iberos. 
SsBpe etiam cunu timidos agitabit onagrod ; 
£t canibuB leporem, canibus venabere damai. 
Ssope yolutabrls pulaos lilyeBtribug aproa 
LAtratu turbabia agena { monteaque per alto* 
Ingentem damore premea ad retia cenrum.** 

Georgie, Lib. Il/.t Line 404. 

From the earliest periods the dog has commanded attention 
and respect — ^in many instances, as I have shown, even worship ; 
and in no instance do we find his name confounded with that of 
the wolf, jackal, or fox : such has not only been the result of 

* Kaempfex. 



NATURAL HI8TOBY OF THE DOO. 17 

my own inquiry, but I am happy to be able to adduce the very 
high authority of Colonel Hamilton Smith, who writes: — ** A 
thorough philological inquiry would most assuredly show, that 
in no language, and at no period, did man positively confound 
the wolf, the jackal, or the fox, with a real dog." 

Further particulars relative to the early history of the dog, 
will be elicited in the course of our description of the severid 
yarieties* 



CHAPTER ni. 

VARIETIES OF DOO. 

I MAT premise that I shall first treat of the wild dogs ; and that 
I shall do so as a separate class, which I believe them to be — 
namely, not domestic dogs run wild, nor yet as the wild type 
of our domestic do^ ; but as a separate species, only entitled to 
consideration in this place, as constituting a link between dog 
and wolf, and as being a species still more nearly allied to the 
common dog than that animal, although by no means specifi- 
cally identical ; as the cheetah, or hunting leopard — the ** felis 
jubata" — is stud to do between the felines and the canines, re- 
sembling the greyhound in general form, and difiering from the 
true fehnes in not possessing retractile claws, &c. 

The most remarkable of me wild dogs are, the Dingo of Aus- 
tralia ; the Eararahe ; the Dhole and Jungle koola of India ; the 
wild dog of China ; the bush-dog, or Aguara of South America ; 
the Deeb of Egypt. ^ Of the so-called wild dogs of Southern 
Africa, the " cams pictus" of Desmarest, &c., I shall say no- 
thing in the present volume, as these are not at all to be con- 
sidered as dogs, being far more nearly allied to the hycena. 



THE DINGO. 

The Dingo, called by the natives of AjjAXxijiSLva**^'^ «kx^>s^^^ Ns^ 
about the size of a middling £oxho\XTi^) ox feOTa.\w<so^?5-^Ks«i.^»i 



NATURAl. HIBTOBT OF TBB II 



twentj-fonr inches in height at the shoulder. In form he par. 
takes of many of the characteristics of both dog and wtit, and 




'-^K-^rS#" 



is not verf unlike the c 
theae two animals. Ilia 
tail buehy, his coat of moderate length, and his colour usaallj 
a buff or baj. Many authors assert Uiat the Dingo nerer erects 
his tail, but always comes it in a pendant position : it is not so. 
The Dingo ordinarily carries his tail curled over his back ; it is 
only when irritated or alarmed that he lowers it. I had many 
opportunities of observing a very fine specimen lately in the gar- 
dens of the Royal Zoological Society of Ireland, Phoenix Park, 
and I found that a loweimg of the tail invariably denoted mis- 
chief — that member being usually carried over the back.* The 
dingo seldom growls, and never barks ; although I must sa^ , 
that I have known captive specimens chained near domestic 
dogs, to acquire a sort of half howl or yelp, which, apparently 
a Btrte tuition would have converted into a genuine "bow 
wow." The Dingo is easily rendered tolerably tame ; but is 
never to be trusted ; if he escape from confinement, he will for. 
get in a moment the lessons of years, and slaughter and rapine 
will follow in his mad career. This animal is a great scourge 
in hia native country, and is carefully exterminated whenever 
he approaches a settlement. He is most remarkably tenacious 
of life, and is a very obstinate fighter; instances are related 
of the Dingo sustaining a combat with, and ultimately getting 



NATUBAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 19 

away from four or five stout hounds; and very few dogs can 
kill a Dingo single-handed ; they fight, like the wolf, in si. 
lence ; they utter no cry of pain, but, like that grim felon, die 
as hard as they have hved. Of their power of endurance I 
may give the following instances, related by Mr. Creole Ben- 
nett, in his ** Wanderings in New Soutli Wales." ** One had 
been beaten so severely that it was supposed all the bones were 
broken, and it was left for dead ; after the person had walked 
some distance, upon accidentally looking back, his surprise was 
much excited by seeing the Dingo rise, shake himself, and march 
into the bush, evading all pursuit. One supposed dead was 
brought into a hut, for the purpose of undergoing decortication : 
at the commencement of the skinning process upon the face, 
the only perceptible movement was a slight quivering of the 
lips, which was regarded, at the time, as merely muscular irri- 
tability. The man, after skinning a very small portion, left 
the hut, to sharpen his knife, and returning found the animal 
sitting up, with the flayed int^ument hanging over on one side 
of the face." 

Another traveller* relates anecdotes illustrative of the tena- 
city of life exhibited by this animal ; but the details are so re- 
volting that I refrain from quoting them. 

Frequent experiments have been instituted, with a view to 
procure a hybrid race between the Dingo and the common dog, 
but without success. Mr. Cunningham notices a hybrid race 
of this description as established in New Holland ; but as he 
has given no specific description, I am disposed to question the 
accuracy of his report. Even, however, were Mr. Cunning- 
ham's suppositions really confirmed, the fact of the Dingo and 
domestic dog breeding together would not militate in any de- 
^ee against the truth of my positions — as I have no hesitation 
m admitting that groups of animals may be, though specifically 
distinct, yet so nearly allied^ as to intermix and even produce 
reproductive offspring. The question as to fertility existing in 
the offspring of such unions inter se, must, of necessity, be sa- 
tisfactorily settled ere identity can be even suggested. He may- 
have been imposed upon by the natives, or may have confound- 
ed with such a supposed mongrel race a breed of Dingos of a 
black and tan colour, which are far more easily tamed man the 
common variety. Of these there were a fine pair, about six 
years ago, in the gardens of the Irish Zoological Society, and 
they were remarkably gfentle. 

in New Zealand there has been found aa a^T^os^^^^'^ ^sst.^^ 



20 MATUBAL HISTOBY OF THB DOO. 

dog, called by the natives **Karabahe," respecting which a 
tradition exists that he was ^iven to them some centuries ago 
by certain divinities who visited their shares. In aspect^ this 
dog very closely resembles the Dingo« but he appears to have 
been partially domesticated. 



THE DHOLE.* 

The Dhole is a native of India, over which peninsula it ex- 
tends in great numbers, and bears different names in different 
parts. £ was originally described by Mr. Hodgson as the 
Buansu, and by him given the title of Cams Prinuguus,^ aa, in 
his opinion, it was the origin of the domestic dog [ZooL Pro- 
ceed., 1833] ; and* in the same volume of proceedings we read 
a communication addressed to the secretary, and describing a 
wild dog by the name of dhole, as found in the Presidency of 
Bombay. The locality of Mr. Hodgson's dog was NqpM, the 
eastern and western lunits of its range being the Sutle^ and 
Burhampootra. 

In 1831, Colonel Sykes described a wild dog &om the Mah- 
rattas, wluch he calls the wild dog of the Deccan. Colonel 
Sykes subsequently compared specunens of his wild dog with 
that described by Mr. Hodgson, and found them to correspond 
in the most minute particmars, even to the circumstance of 
wanting the hinder tubercular tooth j: of the lower jaw, and va- 
rying only in quantity and quality of coat — a variation depend- 
insclearly on mdividual peculiarity and on climate. 

The Dhole, Bfiansu* or Kolsun — for these names are synoni* 
mous — is about the size of a small wolf, but is much more 
powerfully built, its limbs, in particular, being remarkably 
large boned, and muscular, in proportion to its size ; its ears 
are large, and rounded at the tips; the muzzle moderately 
pointed, somewhat like that of the greyhound ; the tail very 
bushy ; its colour is a sandy red, or buff. 

In habits, these dogs present all the characteristics of fero- 
cious beasts of prey. They prowl by night and by day indiscri- 
minately, and hunt in pac&s of from ten to sixty. While in 

• The Dhole 1b agreeably deicribed in '* Williaouon*! Oriental Field Sports.** 

t Original or primeval dog. 

t Has any one of my zoological readers ever found ihe hinder tubercular tooth of 

the lower jaw absent ? If so, I would be thankfal for the information. The connexion 

of deficiency qf hairy covering with deficiency of teeth, has been already pointed out by 

that eooxinent naturalist, Col. C. H. Smith t but I haye met with more insfamces in oppo- 

M/f/aa to tium conUSrautory of his opinion in this xespect. 



NATUBAL HlfiTOBT OF THE 30OG. 21 

pursuit^ they utter a pjeculiar yelp, and it is on scents and not 
on sights that they mainly depend for success. Their speed is, 
however, considerable^ and their savage courage and endurance 
render them a terror to the most formidable rangers of the wild. 
The panther, the wild bull^ the tiger, the eleph^t^ fall an easy 
prey before a pack of dholes. On they sweep^ coming u^n 
their game with the force of an ayalanche^ and orerwhelming 
their victim in a livrng torrent. The hunted animal ^oaxy, in- 
deed, kill many of his enemies ; but he has little time afi^rded 
him for exertion or display of prowess, for the dead or wounded 
are hardly missed ere others luiYe rushed into their places. 

Coloned Baber says (Trans. Asiat. Soc.) — *' As often as I 
have met with them, they have been invariably in packs of from 
thirty to perhaps sixty. They must be very formidable, as all 
animals are very much afraid of them. Frequently remains of 
hogs and deer have been brought to me which have been taken 
overnight by these wild dogs. The natives assert that th^ 
kill tigers and chetahs, and there is no doubt o£the fact." It 
would appear that the Dhole is susceptible of being tamed, if 
taken youn^ ; adults are not to be made anything of (Hodg- 
son). In Ceylon, there b a variety of Dhole of a bay colour, 
very fierce, but more solitary in its habits. In Sumatra, there 
is a wild dog of smaller size, very like a fox, of an ashy srey 
colour, with sharp muzzle and black whiskers. In Java mere 
exists a wild dog about the size of a wolf, of a brownish colour. 
Colonel Sykes brought a Dhole to England some years affo, and 
presented him to the Zoological Society of London^— the first 
specimen, I beHeve, ever brought living to Europe. 



THE WILD DOG OF CHINA. 

This dog is very like the Dhole, but is usually less in size, 
and its ears are smaller and mare pointed ; its ccdonr is a bright 
bay. Of its habits in its native country we know little, further 
than that they are, like those of its Indian congener, at once 
predatory and gregarious. I saw one that had been brought 
over to this country, and which appeared exceedingly tame and 
playful. I found, however, that it was very treacherous, for 
although it had suffered me to caress it with my hand, and had 
even taken bread from me, the moment I turned to depart, it 
plunged afler me and snapped at my legs ; fortunately, how- 
ever, nothing suffered but the cloth of my trowsers. I hfi?(«w 
been told that this wild dog ia \dew\,vi«2L'^\^ ^^iSbX, i^I^rj^^jscv^ 
but I want data on whicli to foxmd vcl o^mvsii. 



i 



22 NATUBAL HISTOBT OF THE DOG. 



THE AOUARA OF SOUTH AHEBICA. 

When the new world was first discovered, the natives were 
found in possession of domesticated dogs, very different in ap- 
pearance from anv of the European races ;* and besides these 
were found several wild canines, called Aguaras, The natives 
call them htuh dogs, or dc^ of the woods^ and assert that they 
are only tame dogs run wild. 

The wild dog most common in South America is a snudl, 
short-legged, stout, fox-like animal, but somewhat larger than 
the fox. It is oflen hunted for its skin, and such of its bre- 
thren as may have been partially reclaimed by the natives, make 
no scruple of joining in the chase. These dogs are very silent, 
and are great rogues. They appear, indeed, to thieve from a 
pure and innate propensity to thievery, for they will steal and 
hide articles for which they can have no possible use. 



THE DEEB OF EGYPT. 

Principally inhabiting Nubia and Abyssinia — ^the Thous An- 
thus of H. Smith — ears erect, muzzle not sharpened at the point, 
lips semi-pendulous, tail short and hairy, colour, a mixture of 
dirty white, black, and buiT, producing a series of small black 
spots, caused by the union of the tips of the longer hairs. This 
dog has likewise been, by some naturalists, regarded as the ori- 
gin of our domestic dogs ; and it is certainly of very ancient 
origin, as has been proved by heads of dogs taken from the cata- 
combs, which evidently belong to a similar variety. 

Of the habits of the JDeeb I nave not been able to obtain any 
very satisfactory information, excepting that it appears more 
cowardly than wild dogs usually are, and that it is easily tamed, 
when it becomes very affectionate. Its height is about eigh- 
teen inches. 

We now arrive at the main subject of this volume — . 



THE DOMESTIC DOG. 

Even when taken in detail, the anatomy of the domestic dog 
can, perhaps, scarcely be said to differ materially from that of the 

* Jb thi« fftet to be lost •\gYit o{\ 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 23 

wolf or the wild dogs, the points in which any discrepancy ex- 
ists not being sufficiently striking to catch any but an expe- 
rienced eye. Such discrepancies, however, do exist, and wnen 
combined with other and unportant physiological facts, are suf- 
ficient to establish the non-identity of the canine and lupine 
families. I have, however, noticed some of these discrepancies 
already, and it is unnecessary to recapitulate them here. 

The do^ belongs to the Mammalia, or animals possessing 
teats for the nounshmeji^ of their young ; to the Carntvora, 
or flesh-eaters — ^for flesh forms the chief article of his diet. He 
is digitigrade, for in walking he supports himself on the extre- 
mities of his toes, or digits. He is usually grouped with, the 
wolf, fox, jackal, &c., iinder the generic appellation of canis, 
and is more particularly separated from these animals by the 
term cams familiaris — ^the familiar or domestic dog. 

The dentition of the dog is as follows : — 

In the upper jaw, six incisors^ or cutting-teeth ; 

two canine teeth, or tusks ; 
six molars, or grinders, on each side. 

In the lower jaw, six incisors ; 

two canines ; 
seven molars on each side. 

Of the upper molar teeth, three oxe false molars, two are tuber- 
cular, and one is camassier, or formed rather for rending than 
grinding. Of the lower molars, four are false, two tubercular, 
and one camassier. In some wild canines, the second tubercu- 
lar molar-tooth of the lower jaw is constantly wanting, as in 
the Dholes, &c. ;• and in one (M^alotis, H. Smith) there exists 
a redundancy — ^there being, in the upper jaw, seven molajrs on 
each side, and in the lower, eight. 

The true dog has five toes on the fore feet, and four toes on 

the hind ; but occasionally a fifUi toe occurs on the hind feet 

sometimes on one, and sometimes on both. This toe is called 
the dew-claw, and is usually removed by the sportsman while 
the animal is young, as its presence is calculated to impede its 
movements. Some writers speak of this claw as peculiar to cer- 
tain breeds. I have had much experience in dogs, and regard 
it as an unquestionable evidence of impurity of breed, wherever 
existing.* 

Various attempts have been made by modem writers to clas- 

♦ Mongreliim, or impwe bleeding, wiUofteiiTBnL\S«[i^\\»^TfiaKK) «e^^ 
the eroM baM taken place, and when tXi othcx apveKnaon^ ^ vQ«^\dA>oKffS(^^»^-< 



24 NATURAL HISTORY OF THB 30OO. 

sify the varieties of the domestic dog into groups. A very re- 
cent author (Mr. Martin) has adopted the form and size oi the 
ear as a criterion. Colonel Smith appears to have depended^ 
in a great measure^ upon colour. These ideas are both very 
good, when taken as adjuncts to another system of a more philo- 
sophical foundation, but are of themselves false and de^ceptive. 

I am disposed to take the lamented Frederick Cnvier as my 
guide, and to form the varieties of dog into ^ups, indicated by 
uie least variable portion of their osteological structure— ^<3ranio- 
logical development. 

This arrangement may be formed with mreat ease and simpli» 
city. All the varieties of the domestic dog are readily divisi- 
ble into three great classes, as follow : — 

I. Such dogs as present a co/tvergence of their parietal bones 
(the side-walls of tne skull^ as it were)^ and the condyles of 
whose lower jaw are somewhat below the level of the molar or 
cheek-teeth of the upper. These present an elongated muzzle, 
a high and somewhat slender frame, and are far more remark- 
able for their powers of sight and swiftness, than for a very high 
development of the sense of smell. 

n. The second group consists of dogs which present parietal 
bones parallel, or at least neither apparently convergent nor di- 
vergent, and the condyles of the lower jaw on a level with the 
upper molar teeth. These are usually dogs of great sagacity, 
and generally possess the sense of smelling in a very high de- 
gree. It is, however, somewhat premature to speak of them, 
previous to a description of the third group. 

III. Parietal bones sensiblv divergent, and the condyles of 
the lower jaw much above the line of.the upper molar teeth. 
This group presents a strongly marked contrast to the first, 
and the varieties, of which it is constituted, are generally cha- 
racterized by great bulk of body, hj powerful strength, indomi- 
table courage, pugnacity of disposition, and not an^ very great 
development oi mental powers. Although the varieties consti- 
tuting this group appear to possess a large development of fore- 
head, the appearance is chiefly owing rather to a thickening of 
hone in those regions than to such a development of brcdn as 
would predicate a high degree of intellectual power. 

The first and thira groups present, more especially the for- 
mer, strong marks of origmahty ; the second looks very much 
as if it owed its origin to the intermixture of the first and third. 
Of the origin of the dog I have, however, said enough ; and 
I have now only to enumeratenad describe his varieties. 

Under a fourth head I shall describe mongrels^ and among 
tAem such few erods-breeds as have been foxmd ^\xd.vdQ\v& wid 



KATUBAL HISTORY OF THE DOO, 



25 



profitable, and have now, consequently, become almost settled 
varieties. 

The first group is represented by the gre}rhound ; and may 
apj)ropriately be divided into two sub- varieties, depending for 
their distinction chiefly on the length and texture of their h^. 
These sub-varieties are the rough, or long-haired — and the 
smooth, or short-haired. I may enumerate them as follows :— 

'Irish wolf-dog. 
Highland deerhound, 
Russian greyhound. 
Rough \ Scottish greyhound, 

Persian greyhound (two sub-varieties), 
Greek greyhound, 
Arabian greyhound. 



Smooth 



Common British greyhound, 
Italian greyhound, 
Turkish greyhound. 
Tiger-hound of South America. 



Although I have here separated the Irish wolf-dog from the 
Highland deer-hound, and from the Scottish greyhound, I have 
only done so, partly in conformity with general opinion that I 
have yet to correct, and partly because these three dogs, though 
originally identical, are now unquestionably distinct in many 
particulars. That is to say, the modem Highland deer-hound, 
though the descendant of the Irish wolf-dog, yet in some respects 
differs from what that noble animal toas ; and the Scottish grey- 
hound, again, is just as different from his prototype the deer- 
hound. 



26 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 



CHAPTER IV. 

CLASS I. THE GREYHOUNDS. 

8VR-Diyi8IOR A, — THE S0U6B OSBTHOURD8. 

The Ifish Wolf-dog — Canis Grains Hibemicua. 

This renowned and redoubted animal^ from age to age^ in tra- 
dition and in song, one of the glories of " The Sacred Isle," and 
with his kindred unrivalled race, the Irish giant deer — ^her re- 
cognized emblem, from among her animated tribes, celebrated 
and extolled by all authors and lovers of natural history, native 
and foreign, and of universal fame in his own country — nas been 
long ranked in peerless dignity, ** facile princeps,** at the head 
of the whole dog family. When the noble dogs of Greece and 
of India were at the height of their renown among the ancients, 
those of Erin were not as yet known, though they soon after- 
wards obtained celebrity. The dogs of Greece appear to have 
had a strange and mysterious affinity with those of the West. 
Those of India have disappeared from our knowledge, and baffled 
our research, though they, too, probably shared in this affinity, 
through, perhaps, the often-proposed medium of the Phcenicians, 
or through that of the Phocaean colony from Asia Minor (see 
Herodotus). Marsilia, in Gaul, the modern Marseilles (see 
Moore). Many derivations of the name greyhound have been 
suggested, and amongst others great hound — grey-hound (from 
colour). My own impression is, that the true one is Greek 
hound, grams, and we have reason to believe that to that coun- 
try we are indebted for the race. 

The great point at issue relative to the natural history of the 
Irish wolf-dog, may be stated as being whether he belonged to 
the greyhound race, or was of more robust form, approaching 
that of the mastiif. There are, indeed, individuals who, with- 
out a shadow of ground on which to base their opinions, deem 
him to have been a mongrel, bred between mastiff and grey- 
hound, &c. Of this last-mentioned theory, as it has no fact or 
authority of any sort to support it, I shall, of course, say nothing 
— more especially as no such proof \& attempted by the advo- 
eates of this very singular opinion. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 27 

In support of the mastiff* doctrine, we have one single mo- 
dem authority — if, indeed, authority it can be called. About 
fifty years ago, the late Aylmer Burke Lambert, Esq., read a 
paper before the Linnaean Society, subsequently published in 
the third volume of that Society's Transactions, descriptive of 
some dogs in possession of Lord Altamont, son of the Marquis 
of Sligo, and stated to have been the old Irish wolf dog. The 
dog described and figured by Mr. Lambert is a middlmg sized 
and apparently not very well bred specimen of a comparatively 
common breed of dog, called the Great Dane, an animal that 
shall be treated of in this volume in his proper place. Had this 
been the Irish wolf-dog, it were absurd to speak of his scarcity, 
far less of his extinction I That Lord Altamont thought his 
dogs were wolf-dogs, I do not doubt ; and it is very possible 
that, some generations back, they mi^ht have had a strain of 
the true breed in them, subsequently lost by crossing ; and I 
likewite make no doubt but that the great Dane, introduced 
into this country by our Danish invaders, was often used in 
olden time as an auxiliary in the chase of the savage animals, 
the wolf in particular, with which our woods abounded ; but is 
it not most absurd to find writers adopting Mr. Lambert's des- 
cription and figure of his Danish mastiff, and yet adhering to 
the ancient nomenclature of "Canis Graius Hibemicus" — the 
Irish greyhound/ 

Nor would these mastiif-like dogs have, alone, proved equal 
to the task of wolf-hunting. They might, indeed, if very nne 
specimens — ^but not such as Lord Altamont's — have been suffi- 
ciently powerful to grapple with their grisly foe ; but that foe 
was very swift of foot, and he had first to be caught — a feat that 
dogs of their heavy make would find it impossible to perform. 
Wanting the fieetness necessary to run into so ^wift an animal, 
they would equally have failed in attempting to run him down 
by scent. These dogs are of a very lethargic, sluggish tempera- 
ment, qualities ffreatly in their favour as boar-hounds, the pur- 
pose to which they are applied in their native country, for if 
they were too eager or too swift in pursuit of the boar, there 
would very soon be but few of the pack left alive ; but such 
qualities would be most unsuitable, indeed, in the chase of 
an animal characterized by 

** The long gallop whldi can tire 
The hotmdB deep hate, and hnntiman's fire.** 

It is evident, then, that the desideratum in a wolf-do^ wa& o. 

• I employ the tcnn mastiff <ni\j for \n«vVtY ^wwi tsa ^CiQft t«ka <ft^ ?i2a»5w^«*»««2«***''^ 
fbe ^fyAouml doctrine. 



26 NATUBAL HI8T0BY OF THB DOG. 

combination of extreme swiftness, to enable him to overtake his 
rapid and formidable quarry^ and vast strength to seize^ secure^ 
and slay him when overtaken. 

I may here observe that> about five or six years ago, I pub- 
lished an article on this subject in the *• Irish Penny Journal,*'* 
which every writer on dogs that has published since that time 
has done me the honour of appropriating, some with full and 
fair acknowledgment^ others with only such a partial acknow- 
ledgment as was calculated to misleaa the reader. I now lay 
claim to my own property^ and finally embody it in the follow- 
ing pages^ with many admtions^ the result of subsequent inves- 
tigation, f 

Pliny relates a combat in which the dogs of Epirns bore a 
part. He describes them as much taller uan mastifis, and of 
greyhound form ; detailing an account of their contests with 
a lion and an elephant. Tms, I should think, suffices to estab- 
lish the identity of the Irish wolf-dog with the far-famed dogs 
of Epirus. 

Strabo describes a gigantic greyhound as having been in use 
among the Celtic and Pictish nations ; and as being held in 
such high esteem, as to have been imported into Gaul for the 
purposes of the chase. 

Silius describes a large and powerful greyhound, as having 
been imported into Ireland by tiie Belgse ; thus identifymg the 
Irish wolf-dog with the celebrated Belgic dog of antiquity, 
which we read of in so many places, as having been brought to 
Bome, for the combats of the amphitheatre. 

HoUinshed says of the Irish — " They are not without wolves, 
and greyhounds to hunt them, bigger of bone and limb than a 
colt." Campion also speaks of him as a '^ greyhound of great 
bone and limb." 

Evelyn, describing the savage sports of the bear-garden, says 
— " The bull-dogs did exceeding well, but the Irish wolf-dog 
exceeded, which was a tall greyhound, a stately creature, and 
did beat a cruel mastifi*." Here we have an actual comparison 
of powers, which marks the dog to have been a greyhound, and 
quite distinct from a mastiff. 

In the second edition of Smith's *' History of Waterford,** 
the Irish wolf-dog is described as much taller than a mastifi^ 
and as being of the greyhound form, unequalled in size and 
strength. Mr. Smith writes : — " Roderick, King of Connaught, 
was obliged to furnish hawks and greyhounds to Henry II. Sir 

* JUmjTf JS4L 

t injuttioe, Imtut bare state that the aocofunt In <iueil\ou m* otl^ «AsM9lfiiM&'«VQ&. 
mjr laltittjB, H, JD. R. 



MATUBAL HI8TOBT OF THE DOG. 29 

Thomas Rue obtained great f&yova from the Great Mogul, in 
1 6 1 5, for a brace of Irish greyhounds presented by him. Henry 
y in. presented the Marquis of Dessarapes, a Spanish grandee^ 
with two goshawks^ and four Irish greyhounds.", 

In the reign of Kicbard IL^ lands were still held under the 
crown^ and amongst other foniilies, by that of Eugaine^ on con- 
dition of the holders keeping a certain number of wolf-dogs fit* 
ted for the chase. (U. bmith.) 

Sir James Ware has, in his ** Antiquities of Ireland," col- 
lected much information relative to this dog, from which I giye 
the followinjg extract: — **1 must here take notice of those 
hounds, which, from their hunting of wolves, are commonly 
called wolf-dogs, being creatures of great strength and size, and 
of a fine shape. I cannot but ihmk that these are the dcjgs 
which Symmachus mentions in an epistle to his brother Flavuu 
nus. ' I thank you,' says he, ' for the present you made me of 
some canes Scottci, which were shown at the Circensian games^ 
to the great astonishment of the people, who could not judge it 

risible to brinff them to Rome otherwise than in iron cages.' 
am sensible Mr. Burton (Itinerary of Anton, 220), treading 
the footseps of Justus Lipsius (Epist. ad Belg. Cent, i., p. 44), 
makes no scruple to say, that ibe dogs intended by Symmachus 
were British mastives.,' But, with submission to such great 
names, how could the British mastive set the appellation of 
Scoticus in the age Symmachus lived ? For he was Consul of 
Rome in the latter end of the fourth century ; at which time, 
and for some time before, and for many centuries after, Ireland 
was well known by the name of Scotia, as I have shown before 
(Chap. L) Besides, the English mastive was no way compa- 
rable to the Irish wolf-dog in size or elegant shas^ ; nor would 
it make an astonishing figure in the spectacles exhibited in the 
circus. On the other lumd, the Irish wolf-dog has been thought 
a valuable present to the greatest monarch, and is sought after, 
and is sent abroad to all quarters of the world ; and this has 
been one cause why that noble creature has ^rown so scarce 
among us, as another is the neglect of the species since the ex- 
tinction of wolves in Ireland ; and, even of what remain, the 
size seems to have dwindled from its ancient stateliness. When 
Sir Thomas Rowe was ambassador at the court of the Crreat 
Mogul, in the year 1615, that emperor desired him to send for 
some Irish greyhounds, as the most welcome present he could 
make him, which being done, the Mo^ul showed the greatest 
respect to Sir Thomas, and presented him with his picture^ aaai^ 
several things of value. Yi e ftce Va. ^I>a» ^jvWCm^ T^tRwt^a* "w^****^- 
Uer instaace of the desiie tOTeigMst^ \ia.N<i.\Mft^ ^'^^^'^^c^ 



80 NATURAL BISTORT OF THB DOG. 

wolf-dogs of Irish mirth. In a privy seal from Eing^ Henry 
VIII. to the Lord Deputy and Council of Ireland, wherein his 
his majesty takes notice^ * that at the instant suit of the Duke 
of Alberkyrke of Spain (of the Privy Council to Henry V1110» 
on the behalf of the Marquis of Desarrya, and his son, that it 
might please his majesty to grant to the said marquis, and his 
son^ and the longer liver of them> yearly out of Ireland, two 

goshawks and four greyhounds ; and forasmuch as the said duke 
ath done the king acceptable service in his wars, and that the 
king is informed that the said marquis beareth to him especial 
good-will, he, therefore, grants the said suit, and commandB that 
the deputy for the time being shall take order for the delivery 
of the said hawks and greyhounds, unto the order of the said 
marquis and his son, and the longer liver of them, yearly ; and 
that the treasurer shall take the charges of buying the said 
hawks and hounds.' It is true that British hounds and beagles 
were in reputation among the Romans, for their speed and 
quick scent. Thus, Nemesian, in his Ctmegeticks :— 

• Diriaa Britannia mlttit 

Velocet, nostriqae orbii venatibni aptot.* 

* Great Britain wndi iwift hounda, 
Fittest to hunt upon our grounds.* 

And Appian calls the British hound, f»vkal Ix^tvln^H, a dog that 
scents the track of the game. But this character does not hit 
the Irish wolf-dog, which is not remarkable for any great saga- 
city in hunting by the nose. Ulysses Aldrovandus, and Gfes- 
ner, have given descriptions of the Caids Scoiicus, and two 
prints of them very little different from the common hunting- 
hound. 'They are,* says Gesner, 'something larger than the 
common hunting-hound, of a brown or sandy spotted colour, 
quick of smelling, and are emplojred on the borders between 
England and Scotland to follow thieves. They are called sleut- 
hound.' In the Regiam Majestatem of Scotland is this passage 
— * Nullus perturbet aut impediat Canem trassantem aut homi- 
nes trassantes cum ipso ad sequendum latrones, aut ad capi- 
endum latrones.' * Nobody shall give any disturbance or hm- 
drance to tracing-dogs, or men employed with them to trace or 
apprehend thieves or malefactors.' This character no way 
agrees with the Irish wolf-dog ; and the reader must observe, 
that when Gesner and Aldrovandus wrote, in the sixteenth 
century, modem Scotland was well known by the name of Sco- 
tia, which it was not in the fourth century, when Symmachus 
wj'ote the aforesaid epistle ; and, therefoxe, th^ C&ik:^^ ^Qid<^\i& 



NATURAL HI8T0BT OF THE DOG. 31 

described by Aldrovandus imd G^sner, were dogs of diiSerent 
species." 

Thus far we have proved the Irish wolf-dog to have been a 
large greyhound^ of size and strength far superior to ordinary 
dogs. 

The original greyhound was unquestionably a long-haired dog, 
and the modem smooth-coated and thin animal» now known by 
that name> is comparatively of recent date. Of this we have 
sufficient evidence in the ancient monuments of Egypt, where, 
as well as in Persia and India^ rough greyhounds of great size 
and power still exist. A dos of me same kind has been de- 
scribed by H. Smithy as well Known in Arabia ; and a gigantic 
rough greyhound was found by Doctor Clarke, on the confines 
of Circassian and by him described as identical with our old 
Irish greyhound. (^Clarke* s Travels in Russia, Tartary, and 
Turkey,) 

We find that the smooth greyhound was^ on its first intro- 
duction, known as ''gaze-hound," being remarkable solely for 
sight and speed (H. Smith) ; and in process of time the new 
appellation became forgotten, and merged in the original and 
well-known one of ^reyhound^ upto that period given exclu- 
sively to the long-haired variety (H. Smith). We may then in- 
fer, that not only was the Irish wolf-dog a greyhound, but also 
lon^-haired. Whence he originally came would, perhaps^ be 
difficult to determine with any precision ; but if I might be 
permitted to hazard a conjecture^ I should refer his origin to 
Western Asia^ where we find a distinct representative of him 
still existing. From thence he was brought by the Scythi, the 
progenitors of the Scoti, or ancient Irish* rerhaps die best 
mode of defining the true character of the ancient wolf-dog, 
will be to point to his modem representative ; and this can^ I 
conceive, oe done without difficulty. I may here quote a 
writer in the '• Penny Cyclopaedia," (Art. Ireland) • — *' The 
Scoti, who were in possession of the island at the time of the 
introduction of Christianity, appear to have been, to a great 
extent, the successors of a people whose name and monuments 
indicate a close affinity wim uie Belgce (a Teutonic tribe) of 

* My flriend, George Fetrie, the celebrated Iriah antiquarian, who has pnbllihed 
an interesting account of Cyclopean architectural remaini as found in Ireland, Is 

disposed to connect these renudns with the mysterious ^nka^yot (Felasgi) of Herodo< 

tus, which hare given rise to many Felasgian theories. He has also found many curtous 
traces of Oretee in Ireland. Now the Irish annalists, && , trace these colonies, as well aa 
the Tuatha d» Daaaans (Oanai?) firom Grbbck. Is not Mr. Fetrie's opinion, therefere^ 
tliat to that country we owe the dog, deservlnK^3{•iien\V(ni^ «.TAV^'^<!X'C&^%^aSsst^>Rite»^ 
sort of pUusIhility, at least, to my own deT\N«.\.\oTLQt^bA\»s&s^^1 ^fi5ife^aws'^«8«s»^v^5».- 
nif Grains— On^f Of— tlTe 6r<rcM—<3iT««kYu>u&dL^ 



32 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 

Sonthei*n Britain. A people also, called Cruithore by the Iris& 
annalists, who are identifiable with the Picts of Northern Bri- 
tain, continued to inhabit a portion of the island distinct from 
the Scoti, until afler the Christian mission ; and it is observ- 
able, that the names of mountains and remarkable places in 
that district, still strikingly resemble the topo^aphicai nomen- 
clature of those parts of l^orth Britain whicn have not been af. 
fected by the Scotic conquest. The monuments and relics which 
attest the presence of a people considerably advanced in civili- 
ization, at some period in Ireland — such as Cyclopean buildings, 
sepulchral mounds containing stone chambers, mines, bronze 
instruments and weapons, of classic form and elegant workman- 
ship — ^would appear to be referrible to some of the predecessors 
of the Scoti, and indicate a close affinity between the earliest 
inhabitants of Ireland and that ancient people." We may in- 
fer, then, that as Ireland was peopled by the Bel^se, the Belgic 
dog of antiquity was the source whence we derived our Insh 
greyhound. 

We are informed by two very eminent authorities — the Ve- 
nerable Bede, and the Scottish historian, Major — ^that Scotland 
was peopled from Ireland. We know, and I have shown as 
much in my extract from Sir James Ware, that by the early 
writers Scotland was styled Scotia minor, and Ireland, Scotia 
major ; and it is scarcely necessary for me to make any remark 
«s to the identity of the native languages of the primitive inha- 
bitants of the two countries. The colonization, therefore, of 
Scotland from Ireland, under the conduct of Reuda, bein^ ad- 
mitted, can we suppose that the colonists would omit t&ing 
with them specimens of such a noble and gallant dog, and one 
that must prove so serviceable to their emigrant masters ; and 
that, too, at a period when men depended upon the chase for 
their subsistence. True this is but an inference ; but is it not 
to be received as a fact, when we find that powerful and noble 
dog, the Highland deerhound, a tall, rough greyhound, to have 
been known in Scotland since its colonization. Formerly it 
was called the wolf-dog ; but with change of occupation came 
change of name. In Ireland, wolves were certainly in existence 
longer than in Scotland ; but when these animals ceased to ex- 
ist m the former countr)'-, the wolf-dogs became gradually lost. 
INot so in Scotland, where abundant employment remained for 
them, even after the days of wolf-hunting were over : the red 
DEER still remained ; and useful as had these superb dogs proved 
as wolf-dogs, they became, perhaps, even more valuable as deer- 
Jiounds. 
Such relics of Celtic verse as have escaped tXia xafisi:<5^«s»\i3^^ 



NATURAL BISTORT OF THE POG. 33 

of time^ andy amongst other fragments, those collected by Mac- 
pherson, under the title of " flie Poems of Ossian," inform as 
that the ancient Scoti* possessed a gigantic greyhound^ an ani- 
mal of yast size and prodigious strength, quauties more than 
equalled bjr his surpassing speed,- which was used by warriors 
of olden tmie in the chase of the wolf and deer. Such was 
** Bran," ** Bounding Bran," " White-breasted Bran, **Hairy-' 
footed Bran."f Bran, whose yery name is beautifidlj indica- 
tiyeof his character — of the character of his race— signifying, as 
Celtic scholars inform us, ^* mountain torrent." Such, indeed^ 
was Bran, the fayourite wolf-dog of Fionn Mac Comhal, popu- 
larly known as Fin Mac Coul ; and be it recollected, Fionn 
was an Irish chieftain, known to modem ears as Fingal.j: 

That the Irish dog was imported into Scotland, and eyen at 
a later period than that to which I haye alluded, is sufficiently 
eyident from the following document, being a copy of a letter 
addressed by Deputy Falkland to the Earl of Cork, in 1623 : — 

**My Lord, 

**I haye lately receiyed letters from my Lord Duke of 
Buccleuch, and others of my noble friends, who haye entreated 
me to send them some greyhound do^ and bitches out of this 
kingdom, of the largest sort, which, I perceiye, they intend to 
present unto diyerse princes, and other noble persons ; and if 
you can possibly let them be white, which is the colour most in 
request here. Ezpectins an answer by the bearer, I commit 
you to the protection of me Almighty, and am 

'* Your Lordship's faithful and attached friend, 

"Falkland." 

Moryson, secretary to Ixnrd Deputy Mountjoy, likewise dwells 

* Irifh or Scotch indiflbrenily. 

t These epithets wUl itnmgly remind the reader of Homer, and will go to show how 
nearly the diction of all ancient langnagea will be found to approximate — *' Dog- faced 
Agamemnon," '* Swift-footed Achillei,** ** Oolden-footed Thetii.** The simile of 
** Mountain torrent** is here giren, as employed by Ossian, to designate the impetnod^ 
of the wolf-dog. Seott was eridently thinking of this epithet, ae thni a^^lied, when he 
used almost its conrerse in describing a tovent, ae 



-** A tawny torrent 



Like the mane of a diestant bone.** 

t Ilngal, or Iton Vmc GoBihail, son-tn-Iaw of Connae, monarch of Irdand, of whom 
we read that be was ** the most aoonnpliahed of aU the Milesian princes, whether as Iai^ 
lator, soldier, or sdiolax^— was, aooording to thft tBeoenl t««oi\<A i!SC^&ak\&ateie>aK9b^*te^ 
monarefa andgeaeni of fhe fined TiunaElzlaaii^ ok hsMd«fDSkVveEk.'«S&^iiSA::^'<>^«««^ ^ 
/rf/am/^Lw^ 190-199). 



34 NATURAL HI&TORT OF THE DOG. 

on the excellence of our Irish ^eyhounds, while he» at the same 
time^ pays a compliment to the physical qualities of our men. 
He observes : — *< The Irish men and greyhounds are of great 
stature." Lombard says that the ''best hunting-dogs in Eu- 
rope" were produced in Ireland. 

Sir William Betham, Ulster King at Arms has stated it as his 
conviction, that the Irish wolf-dog was *' a gigantic greyhound, 
not smooth-skinned, like our greyhounds, but rough and curly- 
haired. The Irish poets call the wolf-dogs * Cu,' and the com- 
mon hound * gayer* — a marked distinction, the word * Cu* signi- 
fyine also a champion." 

The iustly-celebrated Ray has described the Irish wolf-dog 
as a tall, rough greyhound ; and so has also Pennant, who de- 
scants at some length on his extraordinary size and power. 

Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, was presented with one of these 
dogs by John, King of England. The reader must be familiar 
with that beautiful ballad, founded on the circumstance of this 
noble animal's having saved Llewellyn's young heir from the at- 
tacks of a wolf, entitled, "The Grave of the Greyhound." 

In a code of Welsh laws, we find heavy penalties laid down 
for the maiming or injuring of the Irisn ^ey hound: in this 
code ho is called **Canis Grajus Hybermcus." We know 
that the dog presented by John was a tall, rough greyhound. 

These extracts are all confirmatory of the Irish wofedog hav- 
ing been a tall, rough dog, of the greyhound make, but far 
stronger — similar, in short, to the modern Highland deer-hound 
—but I can adduce further reasons why we must regard him 
as identical with that dog. The canine skulls found by that 
eminent naturalist. Surgeon Wilde, some years ago, at Dun- 
shaughlin, and described by him in a paper read before the 
Royal Irish Academy, were evidently those of rough grey- 
hounds, difiering from the modern Highland dog, only in their 
superior size — of which more anon. 

The Irish greyhound, although very scarce, and evidently 
much degenerated, has existed in Ireland until within a few 
years — and that in well authenticated purity. Amongst other 
possessors of the breed, I may mention Robert Evatt, Esq., of 
Mount Louise, county Monaghan — specimens of whose stock 
have passed into the nands of Francis Carter, Esq., of Vicars 
Field, county Dublin. Mr. Carter has been most assiduous in 
keeping up the breed, by crossing it with the best Scottish and 
Welsh dogs he could obtain ; and I never could perceive any 
difierence between them, except that the Irish dogs were thicker, 
and not so high on ihea le^s, as eitlier ibe Sc^ttaah. or Welsh. 
One of these dogs, sent by Mr. Caxter to AHicnft«^ w^BW«^wA 



NATURAL HISTORY OP THE DOO. 3^ 

killed a wolf, upon the open prairie, without assistance. Few 
dogs can do this ; and I refer for my authority to Mr, Carter. 

As to the size to which the Irish wolf-dog attained. Gold- 
smith says that he '^saw aboye a dozen, and one was about four 
feet high, or as tall as a calf of a year old." Bufibn says he 
never saw more than one, and that it was five feet high when 
sitting. Ray calls it ** the greatest dog he had ever seen." In 
the same communication firom Sir W. Betham,* which I have 
already quoted, that gentleman says, ** Sir J. Browne allowed 
them to pome into his dining-room, when they put their heads 
over the shoulders of those who sat at table." 

If Goldsmith meant that he saw a wolf-dog four feet high at 
the head, we may believe him ; and so may we believe Bufibn, 
if we are to understand him as measuring the sitting dog with 
a line along the back. I cordially agree that it was <* the great- 
est dog" Ray had ever seen ; but I am uncertain as to the man- 
ner in which the dogs described by Sir William Betham "put 
their heads over the shoulders" of the guests seated at table. 
Did they place, as dogs are apt to do, their fore-feet on the 
back rung of the chair ? I think they did : still, however, even 
with these limitations, they must be admitted to have been gi- 
gantic dogs. 

A large skull was recently found in a bog in Westmeath, 
by a collector of antiquities and other curiosities, named James 
Underwood — a man long and favourably known to men of sci- 
ence, for his unwearied diligence, patient research, and acute 
discernment. Of this skull an account was subsequently pub- 
lished in several of the newspapers, by Mr. Glennon, of 3, Suf- 
folk-street, Dublin, describing it as the skull of our Irish wolf- 
dog. Every allowance must, however, be made for Mr. Glen- 
non's zeal and anxiety to bring the matter forward in a hurry. 
The length of this skull was between seventeen and eighteen 
inches, which would have furnished a living head of upwards of 
twenty inches. The living owner of the skull must have been 
at least four and a half or five feet high at the shoulder. I do 
not, however, believe this to have been the skull of our wolf-dog ; 
although I cannot, at the same time, agree with those who suppose 
it to be the skull of a bear. Many of these gentlemen are com • 
parative anatomists — and their opinions are deserving of some 
attention ; but to a close observer, the skull in question will be 
found to present many discrepancies, from- the characters of the 
ursine group of animals. It certainly differs also from the ca- 
nines, m the absence of the last molar tooth of th& ^i^^scl ^s:;^ ^ 

* Made to Mr. HaAeVai, Vn V%V\. 



36 NATURAL BISTORT OF THE BOO. 

and some other particulars. My own opinion is that this is the 
skull of an extinct animal, allied to, but by no means identical 
with, the dog ; and an animal with which we are now unac- 
quainted ; partaking, likewise, somewhat of the characteristics 
of the bears, and perhaps, also, the hysBuas. It differs from 
the skull of the hysena eyen more than iit does from that of the 
bear. The onlj bear to whose skull this at all approaches is 
the Great White Bear (Ursus Maritimus), whose head is not at 
all unlike that of a shayed Deerhound. This skull, then, I only 
mention, in order to ayoid any misconception arising relatiye 
to it ; or any misrepresentation as to my own yiews respecting 
it. 

The canine skulls found by Surgeon Wilde, at Dunshaughlin, 
afford a yery rational mode of determining the size, or at least, 
the extreme size, of the wolf-dog in ancient times. The long- 
est of these skulls (at present preseryed in the Boyal Irish Aca- 
demy,) measures in length, as accurately as may be, eleyen 
inches in the bone. This, at a small computation, allowing for 
muzzle, hair, skin, and other tissues, would giye fourteen inches 
as the length of the head in life. As the skulls are those of 
greyhounds, we must take the head of a greyhound to furnish 
an analogy. Oscar,* the noble dog, property of Mr. J. J. Nolan, 
which so long proyed an ornament to our Zoological Gardens, 
Phoenix-park, measured nine and a half inches, from muzzle to 
occiput : his height at the shoulder was twenty-nine indies. The 
calculation is thus resolyed into a conmion sum in proportion : 
which may be stated thus ; for the sake of breyity we assume 
Oscar's head to haye measured ten inches : — 

10 : 29 : 14 : 40*5 

This would giye a height of three feet four inches ; but this skull 
was much superior in size to any others ; and we may, there- 
fore, fairly come to the conclusion, that from thirty-six to forty 
inches was the ordinary stature of the wolf-dog — a height at- 
tained to by none of our modem Highland deer-hounds, or by 
any dog with which we are acquainted. 

It has been asserted, that the large dogs in possession of the 
late celebrated Hamilton Bowan, were Irish wolf-d<^8 — an as- 
sertion which I find contradicted by Mr. Martin (Knight's 
Weekly Volume, History of the D(^), on the authority of a 
" Dublin Correspondent," who has imormed him they were not 
wolf-dogs, but large bloodhounds. The trutii is, Mr. Kowan pos- 

* jEl£iiied in our fitontlq^leQe. 



NATURAL HI8TOBT OF THE DOG. 37 

sessed several fine dogs, of the breed called the great Dane, ani- 
mals of a slaty blue mottled colour ; but Mr. Rowan was well 
aware of their proper designation, and never by any chance 
called them by a wrong name. How any person could be so 
ignorant of natural history as to call them bloodhounds, I can- 
not conceive. Mr. Kowan also possessed a wolf-dog, and knew 
him to be such, calling him the '*last of his race." This dog was 
a very large rough greyhound, of an iron grey colour, perfectly 
similar to our Highland deerhound. Mr. Carter, a gentleman 
to whom I have already alluded, recollects this dog perfectly, 
and affirms him to have in every respect resembl^ his own, 
but was superior in size. Mr. Kowan subsequently presented 
this wolf-dog to Lord Nugent. I suppose this is the dog that 
Mr. Jesse mentions as having possessed so wondrous a power of 
detecting, by the scent, the presence of the Irish blood royal !* 

The &ish wolf-dog forms the subject of several traditions. 
The following, relating to " Bran," the favourite hound of 
Fingal, the hero of Macpherson's Ossian, may not prove unin- 
teresting. There are two accounts of this transaction, one given 
by Mr. Grant, in his work on the Gael, and the other by Mr. 
Scrope, in his delightful volume on Deer-stalking. They differ 
in tlie result of me encounter. I shall adopt Mr. Scrope's, 
deeming it the most authentic. 

** Fingal i^^reed to hunt in the forest of Sledale, in company 
with the SuSerland chief, his cotemporary, for the purpose of 
trying the comparative merits of their dogs. Fingal brought 
his celebrated dog Bran to Sutherland, m order to compete 
with an equally famous dog belonging to the Sutherland chief, 
and the only one in the country supposed to be any match for 
him. The approaching contest between these fine fl.ninn5^1« cre- 
ated great interest ; White-breasted Bran was superior to the 
whole of Fingal's other dogs, even to the * surly strength of 
Luah;' but we Sutherland dog, known by the full-sounding 
name of Phorp, was incompanS>ly the best and most powerfiu 
dog that ever eyed a deer in his master's forests. 

**When Fingal arrived in the forest with his retinue and 
dogs, he was siuuted with a welcome that may be translated 
thus — 

** With your nine great dogi. 
With your nine naaller gune-«t«rting dogi. 
With your nine spean, 
Unirieldly weapons ! 

And with yoor nine gnj* sharp-edged swords, 
Famons were joa in the fioremost light.* 



« See " FttiuilC '▼o\. x., p. 1^^. 



38 NATURAL HlfiTORT OF THE DOO. 

** The Sutherland chief also made a conspicuous figuret with 
his followers, and his dogs and weapons for the chase. Of the 
two rival dogs> Bran and Phorp, the foUoDving descriptions 
have still survived amongst some of the oldest people in Suth-. 
erland. Bran is thus represented : — 

*• * The kind lag like • hook or bent bow, 
The hreMt like that of • garron,* 
The ear like • leaf.' 

** Such would Fingal, the chief of heroes, select from amongst 
the youth of his hunting-dogs. Phorjf was black in colour, and 
his points are thus described : — 

•* * Two yellow ftet inch m Bran had i 
Two black eye* i 
And a white braatt ; 
A back narrow and fldr. 
At required fbr hunting t 
And two erect ears of a dark brown red.* 

** Towards the close of the da^, after some severe runs, which^ 
however, still left the comparative merits of the two dogs a sub- 
ject of hot dispute, Bran and Phorp were brought front to front, 
to prove their courage ; and they were no sooner untied, than 
they sprang at each other, and fought desperately. Phorp seem- 
ed about to overcome Bran, when his master, the Sutnerliuid 
chief, unwilling that either of them should be killed, called out, 
* Let each of us take away his dog.' Fingal objected to this ; 
whereupon the Sutherland chief said, with a taunt, that ' it was 
now evident that the Fingalians did not possess a dog that could 
match with Phorp,* 

*^ Angered ana mortified, Fingal immediately extended his 
'venomous paw,' as it is called (for the tradition represents him 
as possessing supernatural power), and with one hand he seized 
Phorp by the neck, and with the other, which was a charmed 
and destructive one, he tore out the brave animal's heart. This 
adventure occurred at a placed near the March, between the pa- 
rishes of Clyne and Kildonan, still called ' Leek na Con,' * The 
stone of the dogs,' there having been placed a large stone on the 
spot where they fought. The ground over which Fingal and 
tne Sutherland chief nunted that day is called * Dirri-le(3:-Con.^ 
Bran suffered so severely in the fight that he died in Glen Loth 
before leaving the forest, and was buried there. A huge cairn 
was heaped over him, wiiieh ^1 remains, and is known by the 
name of* Cairn Bran.'^ 

« A stout geldlni^ 



NAT0BAL HI8TOBT OF THE DOG* 39 

In a work pablished at Belfast^ in the year 1829, entitled 
"The Biography of a T)rrone Family," there is a note at foot 
of page 74, narrating the mode of the destruction of the last 
wolves in Ireland. That note I shall abridge thus :— 

In tibe mountainous parts of the county Tyrone, the inhabi- 
tants suffered much from the wolves, and gave from the public 
fund, as much for the head of one of these animals, as they 
would now give for the capture of a notorious robber on the 
highway. There lived in mose days an adventurer, who, alone 
and unassisted, made it his occupation to destroy those rava^ers. 
The time for attacking them was in the night, and midnight 
was the best time for doing so, as that was their wonted tmie 
for leaving their lair in search of food, when the country was 
at rest, and all was still ; then, issuing forth, they fell on their 
defenceless prey, and the carnage commenced. There was a 
species of dog for the purpose of hunting them, resembling a 
rough, stout, half-bred greyhound, but much stronger. In the 
county Tyrone there was then a large space of ground inclosed 
by a high stone wall, having a gap at the two opposite extre- 
mities, and in this were secured the flocks of the surrounding 
farmers. Still, secure though this fold was deemed, it was 
entered bj the wolves, and its inmates slaughtered. The 
neighbourmg proprietors having heard of the noted wolf- 
hunter above mentioned^ by name Bory Carragh, sent for him, 
and offered the uisual reward, with some addition, if he would 
undertake to destroy the two remaining wolves that had com- 
mitted such devastation. .Carragh, undertaking the task, took 
with him two wolf-dogs, and a little boy, the only person he 
could prevail on to accompany him, and at the approach of 
midnignt, repaired to the fold in question. 

"l^w," said Carragh to the boy, *' as the wolves usually 
attack the opposite extremities of the sheepfold at the same time, 
I must leave you and one of the dogs to guard this one, while 
I go to the other. He steals with aU the caution of a cat, nor 
wOl you hear him^ but the dog will, and will positively give 
him the first fall ; if you are not active, when he is down, to 
rivet his neck to the ground with this spear, he will rise up and 
kill both you and the dog." 

** I'll do what I can," said the boy, as he took the spear from 
the wolf-hunter's hand. 

The boy immediately threw open the gate of the fold, and 
took his seat in the inner part, close to the entrance, his faith- 
ful companion crouching at his side, and seeming perfectly 
aware of the dangerous business he was engaged uu The. wv^^ 
was very dark am. cold, and t\ie poor >l\.^<^>wi^\sssaN^^sKK!as^s*8^ 



40 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 

with the chilly air, was beginning to fall into a kind of sleep, 
when at that instant the dog, with a roar> leaped across him, 
and laid his mortal enemy upon the earth. The boy was roused 
into double activity by the voice of his companion, and drove the 
spear through the wofrs neck, as he had been directed, at which 
tmie Carragh made his appearance with the head of the other. 
We possess no accurate information as to the date of the 
detraction of the last Irish wolf. There was a presentment 
for killing wolves granted at Cork, in 1710. An old gentle- 
man, latenr deceased, informed me, that his mother had often 
told him she recollected wolves having been killed in the county 
Wexford so lately as 1740-50, and it is asserted by credible 
persons, that a very old one was killed in the county Wicklow 
m 1770! These assertions, however, depending only on hear- 
say evidence, are not implicitly to be relied on. 



THE HIGHLAND DEER-HOUND. 

This dog is, as I have shown, the modern representative, un- 
changed, save as to stature, of the Irish wolf-dog. 

The deerhound presents the general aspect of a high bred 
greyhound, especially in all the points on which speed and 
power depend ; but he is built more coarsely, and altogether 
on a larger and more robust scale. The shoulder is also more 
elevated, the neck thicker, the head and muzzle coarser, and 
the bone more massive. 

The deer-hound stands from twenty-eight to thirty inches in 
height at the shoulder ; his coat is rough, and the hair strong ; 
colour usually iron grey, sandy yellow, or white ; gdl colours 
should have muzzle and tips of ears black. 

Attempts have been made to improve the deerhound by cross- 
ing him with other breeds, such as the Pyrenean wolf-do?, 
the bloodhound of Cuba, and the British bloodhound ; buf SLI 
these attempts have failed of their object, and produced only 
deterioration. The cross with the Cuban bloodhound has 
proved least objectionable. It was of this breed that Sir 
Walter Scott's dog, Maida, bred and presented to him by 
Glengarry, sprung. I must not omit to mention that a tuft, or 
pencu of dark hair on the tip of the ear, is likewise a proof of 
nigh blood. In my opinion the Persian greyhound, or a very 
similar greyhound at present used in the hills of Macedonia,* 

* Described pp. 44, 45. 



NATUBAL HI8TOBT OW THE DOG. 41 

would be found a really Yalaable cross, and would improve, in- 
stead of deteriorating this valuable breed, which we may other- 
wise expect soon to degenerate, if not wholly disappear^ from 
the baneful effects of breeding within too dose oonsanguinityy 
or as it is called " ot and in," 

Her majesty possesses a magnificent specimen of deerhound, 
called ** Bran." This noble animal stands over thirty inch^ 
in height at the shoulder, and is supposed to be the finest roeci- 
men of the breed in existence. I am not sure whether Bran 
was the gift of Lord Glenlyon, but I know that that nobleman 
presented her majesty with some fine specimens of this breed. 

The following description of deer coursing, extracted from 
Mr. Scrope's a£nirable volume, will, I am confident, be read 
with interest : — 

*'No time was to be lost: the whole party immediately 
moved finrward in silent and breathless expectation, with the 
dogs in front, straining in the slips, and on our reaching the 
top of the hillock, we got a full view of the noble stag, who, 
having heard our footsteps, had sprung to his le^, and was 
stari^ us full in the face, at the distance of about sixty yards. 

'* The dogs were slipped ; a general halloo burst from the 
whole party, aud the stag, wheeliW round, set off at full speed, 
with Buskar and Bran straining aner him. 

The brown figure of the deer, with his noble antlers laid 
back, oontrastea with the light colour of the dogs stretching 
alon^ the dark heath, pr^nt^ one of the most exciting scenes 
that it is possible to imagine. 

" The deer's first attempt was to gain some rising ground to 
the left of the spot where we stood, and rather behmd us ; but 
being closely pursued by the dogs, he soon found that his only 
safety was in speed ; and as a deer does not run well up hill, 
nor like a roe, straight down hill, on the dogs improaching him 
he turned and almost retraced his footsteps, taong, however, 
a steeper line of descent than the one by which he ascended* 
Here the diase became most interesting ; the dogs pressed him 
hard, aud the deer, getting confused, found himself suddenly 
on the brink of a small precipice, of about fourteen feet in 
height, firom the bottom ot which there sloped a nigged mass 
of stones. He paused for a moment as if afraid to take 
the lei^, but the dogs were so close that he had no altemar 
live. 

"At this isme the party were not above 150 yards distant, 
and most anxiously awaited the result, fearin!^, ^eoici^.^^ ^<^^ 
^edoem of the ground below, ^aXXVi^^ ^«« -^woS.^xjsiv.^QssTO^ 
Se lesap. T&y were, liowev^, wwn t<9oss^^ ^s««a. 



42 MATUBAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 

anxiety ; for though he took the leap> he did so more cumiiiigly 
than gallantly, dropping himself in the most singular manner, 
so that his hind legs first reached the broken roc£s below ; nor 
were the dogs long in following him ; Buskar sm*ang first, and 
extraordinary to relate, did not lose his legs; JBran followed, 
and on reaclung the ground, performed a complete summerset ; 
he soon, however, recovered his legs, and tne chase was con- 
tinned in. an oblique direction down the side of a most rugged 
and rocky brae, the deer apparently more fresh and nimble than 
ever, jumping through the rocks like a goat, and the dogs well 
up, though occasiomdly receiving the most fearful falls. 

** From the high position in which we were placed, the chase 
was visible for nearly half a mile. When some rising ground 
intercepted our view, we made with all speed for a higher point, 
and on reaching it we could perceive that the dogs, having got 
upon smooth ground, had gained on the deer, who was still 
going at speed, and were now close up with him. Bran was 
then leading, and in a few seconds was at his heels, and im- 
mediately seized his hock with such violence of grasp, as 
seemed in a great measure to paralyse the limb, for we deer's 
speed was immediately checked. 

*' Buskar was not far behind, for soon afterwards passing 
Bran, he seized the deer by the neck. Notwithstandmg the 
weight of the two dogs which were hanging to him, having the 
assistance of the slope of the ground, he continued dn^ging 
them along at a most extraordinary rate, in defiance ofuieir 
utmost exertions to detain him, and succeeded more than once 
in kicking Bran off. But he became at length exhausted ; the 
dogs succeeded in pulling him down, and though he made se- 
veral attempts to nse, he never completely regained his legs. 
On coming up we found him perfectly dead." 

I have seen smooth deerhounds in Scotland, but they were 
not deerhounds properly so called, being merely a cross between 
the ordinary greyhound and foxhound. In such case it is 
better that the greyhound should be father, as you will dius be 
more likely to obtain size and power, combined with swiftness. 
This is more particularly to be attended to when it is the rough 
greyhound to which you resort, for amongst all the rough grey- 
hounds, and more especially those of Ireland and Scotknd, 
there exists a greater disparity of size between male and female, 
than between the sexes of any other member of the canine 
family. For instance, of a litter of pups — a dog shall grow to 
the height of, say, thirty inches — and not a female of the same 
^/er g£aU exceed twenty-four inches in \ieig\it «A. tSaa ihoulder. 
21it8is a very jrexnarkable fact, and wortiiy oi «i.\.\fi^TL\.\oii. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 43 

The bloodbound has been employed as a cross^ but the pro- 
geny are too slow and heavy for deer coursing, whatever they 
may be worth as finders^ for which latter purpose why not use 
the bloodhound at once, without resorting to any cross at all ? 
It is a pity that the deerhound should be so scarce ; if suffered 
to become extinct, we may seek in vain for any do^ that shall 
combine, in his single person, so many valuable qualities. 



THE SCOTTISH GEET HOUND. 

This is but a degenerate deerhound — a deerhound rendered 
inferior in size, less shaggy in coat, less ardent and courageous in 
the chase, less powerful, and therefore less serviceable for deer- 
coursing, by the effects of breeding too long within the degrees 
of consanguinity, or, perhaps, from having been crossed with 
some other breed, most probably the lurcher, or the smooth 
sreyhound. Under these circumstances I do not think any 
description of him necessary ; his height seldom exceeds twenty- 
seven mches ; his colour is usually white, or grey, though often 
brindled. 

The Lurcher is a mongrel, bred from greyhound and any 
other dog, usually the shepherd's dog, or terrier ; though for 
deer-stalkinff, often the bloodhound or foxhound. They are 
not creditable followers, being in greater demand by poachers. 
This dog will be noticed in his proper place as a mongreL 



THE RUSSIAN GREYHOUND. 

The true Russian greyhound is a dog of tremendous size and 
power — closely resembbng the Highland deerhound in every 
physical quality ; but I am sorry to say, far inferior to him in 
courage. Two of these dogs will not unfrequently race along- 
side a wolf for many hundred yards, before either of them can 
make up his mind to grapple with him. A wolf is, however, a 
very formidable customer ; and a dog might be a little shy of 
experiencing the power of his tusks, while he would run gaily 
into a deer ; I, therefore, think, that the Russian greyhound 
would prqye a good cross for lie purpose of improving our 
H^land stock. 

The Russian greyhound stands from twenty-eight to thirty 
inches at the shoulder. The Emperor lately presented a lea&K 
of these dogs to her Majesty, '?j\\M^,\\!L^<^^\ii^'!5.'Sf>2^ 
stated to be three feet high I It a^^peax%,>ao'««H«t,\&a^'^iKsa.--' 



44 NATURAL HI8TOBT OF THE DOG. 

intended to appl;^ to the heisht from the ground to the top of 
the head — the neight at the shoulder being not much over thirty 
inches. 

This is the same as the Tartarian dog ; the same with that 
mentioned by Dr. Clarke, as having been met with by him on 
the confines of Circassia ; and is> wimout question, derived from 
the anqient dogs of Epirus and Albania — ^the same source whence 
we perha^ obtained our Irish wolf-dog. Colonel H. Smith says 
that the Kussian greyhound is ** usually white, with black 
clouds :** judging from such as I have seen, I should say that the 
colour is usually an iron or slatey grey": where any cloudings 
appear, I should suspect a cross with the Great Dane or French 
Matin. 

THE PERSIAN GREYHOUND. 

The Persian greyhound is one of the most beautiful dogs with 
which we are acquainted. There are two varieties of this dog : 
one of a tan colour, with very light golden-coloured hair upon 
the hams, and under surface of the tail ; the hair is very long, 
and disposed in fan-like form, while the coat upon the rest of 
the body is close and short. This is a most powerful creature, 
and frequently exceeds thirty inches in height at the shoulder. 
The other variety is furnished all over the body with long silky 
hair, of the length of from five to eight inches, according to the ' 
purity of blood, and the ears are. feathered like those of a spa- 
niel. This latter dog seldom exceeds twenty-eight inches in . 
height ; and is far less powerful than the preceding: his colour 
usually black, relieved with tan. 

The greyhound of India, called sometimes the Bringaree and 
Polygar Dog, is identical with the first-mentioned variety. These 
dogs are all inferior in speed to our European greyhounds, but 
they answer very well for Eastern sport. They are usually em- 
ployed in hunting the jackal — a sport in which they prove very- 
effective. It not unfrequently happens, however, that the jackals 
unite in a body, and turn on their assailants, in which case, un- 
less the sportsmen be well up with their dogs, the latter stand a 
fair chance of being torn to pieces : hence, too high a rate of 
going is not considered as a desideratum, but ramer the con- 
trary. 

The Persian greyhound differs from all the varieties of rough 

greyhound, in his hair, it being of a soft, silky texture, like that 

of the spaniel. In disposition, the varieties present a striking 

difference—the black variety being docile and gentle as the 

spoDiei which he so closely resembles : t\ie \«aNanft\,^,^ct<ifc 



NATURAL HI8TOBT 07 THE DOG. 45 

and intractable, but yet amffliable to training — a process, how- 
ever, not required by the other. 

I hare been told by English sportsmen, who have resided in 
India, that the smooUi, fan-tailed Yariety of eastern greyhound, 
is a match for the Caracal or Persian lynx, and can kill that 
very formidable animal, single-handed ; while the other spaniel- 
like yariety is only fit for hare-coursing; and, as Thompson 
says — 

*« Poor if the triumph o'er the timid hare," 

and for that purpose far inferior to our own smooth breeds, 
from a deficiency of speed, which he does not make up for in 
strength or endurance. 



THE GBEEK GRETHOUBn> 

Is not unlike the Lurcher ; but its hair, though long, is soil 
and not wiry. 

THE ABABIAH GRETHOUND. 

This dog is called by some naturalists the Bedouin grey- 
hound, and by others tne greyhound of Akaba. He is large 
and fierce ; is burnished with a short coat, saye on the tail, which 
is yery bushy ; his ears stand perfectly erect ; colour usually 
bluish grey, but often brown, and not unfirequently white, with 
yellow cloudings. This dog bears a dose resemblance to the 
wild dog of Egypt, named by Colonel Smith, Thous Anthus; 
and is the same to be frequently found figured on y arious ^gyp- 
tian monuments. 

Some naturalists haye asserted the Arabian greyhound to be 
the primitiye dog — the original stock whence tne whole canine 
famuy sprung. That a greyhound was the primitiye dog, I 
haye no doubt ; but it must nave been npure one, which that of 
Arabia eyidendy is not. 



^*N 



46 NATURAL HI8T0BT OF THE DOG. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE GREYHOUNDS. 

BUBDITIBIOR B. 

THE SMOOTH GREYHOUNDS THE COMMON BRITISH GREYHOUND. 

The common greyhound is the most elegantly formed, and most 
graceful of the canine race, and surpasses, also, all his brethren 
m speed. He is evidently, however, a factitious do^, produced 
by care, and, perhaps, crossing, from his rough origmal. 

In height, the greyhound stands from twenty-six to twenty- 
eight inches at the shoulder, and the female does not present 
tmit very striking disparity of size, so remarkable in the deer- 
hound. This fact alone is sufficient to warrant the supposition, 
that the smooth greyhound owes something to the effect of cross- 
breeding. In disposition, the grejrhound is gentle and affec- 
tionate ; indeed he, perhaps, exhibits the latter quality too in- 
discriminately. 

The greyhound was brought to the h^hest state of perfection 
by Lord Orford and Major Topham. Tnose celebrated sports- 
men owed their unparalleled success to the introduction of a 
cross with the huLLdog, and though the two dogs may appear 
very different from each other at hrst view, a very little reflec- 
tion will show, that from the buU-dog, the greyhound could de- 
rive all the wished for excellence — courage, small ear, whip, 
tail, large and deep chest, and general firmness of muscle. On 
the other hand, spieed was found to be recovered undiminished, 
while all the above points were retained, at the seventh remove 
from the bull-dog. 

Snowball, perhaps the fastest dog that ever ran, came of 
this stock ; he won four cups, and thirty-two or thirty-three 
matches, at Maxton, and on the Yorkshire wolds. 

** Ah, gallant Snowball ! what remaini. 

Up Fordon't banks, o'er Flixton's plaini, 

Of all thy strength — thy sinewy force, 

Which rather flew than ran the course ? 

Ah I what remains ? save that thy breed 

May to their fitther's fame tucceed ; 
And when the prise appean in -view, 
Afajr piore that they are 8nowbaY\« loo.^^ 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOO. 47 

Many trials of speed to ascertain the comparative powers of 
the horse and greyhound have been instituted. It appears from 
these^ that on a dat course^ a first-rate racer will beat a grey- 
hound, but that in a hilly country he must succumb to him. 

The greyhound has been sometimes crossed, and that to much 
advant^e, with the rough Scotch breeds. The celebrated 
Gilbertfield, who beat all that ever he encountered, was thus 
bred : Gilbertfield excited so much attention in his day, that I 
think the following account of him will prove interestmg, and 
may also prove serviceable to our Irish breeders : — 

^*The reiterated success of this old doff (Gilbertfield) may 
well excite a smile at those who would talk or write him down 
as a third rate, or stigmatize him as a lurcher 1 If he be a third 
rate, the march of intellect amon^ the knights of the Ions tails, 
must verily be retrograde ; and if he be, indeed, a lurcher, it 
becomes necessary to know, by what name are to be called the 
ninety unsuccessful competitors for the Glasgow Grold Cup. 
Perhaps, after all, it will turn out that these seeming detractions 
are but a cunning device of the friends of Gilbertfield, intended 
to impress the public with the idea, that the achievement of a 
reputation, greater than that of any other dog in the United 
Emgdom, is but a small part of his victory, and that the greater 
part is the accomplishment of an absolute change in language, 
so that henceforth, the word lurcher is to designate supe- 
riority, instead of, as heretofore, inferiority of blood ; and the 
word third-rate, to apply to the ascending scale in degrees of 
comparison, or in other words, to denote the superlative degree 
of excellence. But be this as it may, we are happ^ in being 
enabled to be the first to publish the pedigree of Gilbertfield, 
supplied us at our request by his owner. We give only three 
generations, both because these carry us to the common ances- 
tors of his sire and dam, and because the ancestors of Blucher 
and Tickler never ran in public. Gilbertfield (brindled and 
rough) was pupped in June, 1831 ; and is first, by Giraffe 
(brmdled and smooth), out of Venus (yellow and rough). 

'* Second, Giraffe was by Capilly (brindled and smooth, bro- 
ther to Gscar\ out of Puzzle (brown and smooth, sister to Mr. 
Brum's well-niown Charles James Fox). Venus, by Mr. 
Hamilton, of Greenbank's, Alfred (white and red, and smooth, 
sire of Captain, May, Serpent, Pomni, Lady Mary, &c.,)out 
of Marion (brindled and rough, sister to Capilly, Oscar, Or- 
lando Furioso, and Burr). Third, Capilly and Marion were 
by Blucher (black and smooth), out of Sir William MaxwelU 
of Calderwood's Tickler (w\nlfe «xA TQVi^^« '\>ss!«. ^sjr^n^^ 
raD3 coanter to many of Oie \>e\. \>a»an!» o*^ \s««^ssB%k ^*ts^R5«^ 



48 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 

would seem to be the mere ^ idols of the kennel,' as Lord Bacon 
would have styled them, rather than the conclusions of reason^ 
or the result of experiments. 

** Bred from first cousins, and sprung from three successive 
crosses betwixt the smooth and the roughs Gilbertfield, himself, 
rough, is a great public winner, notwithstanding, it is said, that 
breeding in destroys spirit, and that every cross after the first, 
betwixt the smooth and rough, more and more banishes the 
good qualities of the greyhound. 

*« Opinion, or rather caprice, even among those friendly to 
one cross with the rough, is diverse as to which parent should 
be rough. It so happens, that in this pedigree tne dams were 
the rough. But this cannot be held to establish much, when 
it is remembered, that Gilbertfield's own j^rogenj^, out of a 
smooth bitch (Black Eyed Susan), have distinguished them- 
selves more than any other puppies of this season, part of which 
are thoroughly smooth, and part thoroughly rough. The run- 
ning of him and his lurcher race, equally confute two opposite 
saymgs ; the one, that rough dogs are not fast, but last long ; 
the omer, that they can get out of the slips, but want bottom. 
First, Lord Eglinton's Major is the only dog he meets which 
makes Gilbertfield look not singularly fast up to his hare. 
Second, the race with Dusty Miller, on the last day of the gold 
cup running, put an end to all scepticism as to Gilbertfield's 
bottom. The performances of his ancestors, Oscar, Capilly, 
and Charles James Fox, in the Lanarkshire and Kenfrewshire 
Club, and of Orlando Furioso, Burr, and Giraffe, in East Lo- 
thian — ^his own success, during four seasons, in every club to 
which he belongs, viz., the Ardrossan, Biggar, Clydesdale, Dir- 
leton, and the Lanarkshire and Renfrewshire (bemg rough, he 
is excluded from running at Winchburg), and his triumph at 
Eaglesham — and the commenced career of his offspring, viz.. 
Ocean, Goth, Vandal, Capilly, Harp, Guitar, and Lilly (one 
litter), supply the best of all evidence, that Gilbertfield not 
only inherits, but can transmit winning blood — ^the great aim, 
it is to be presumed, of every sagacious breeder of greyhounds." 
-^Kilmarnock Journal, 1836. 



THE ITALIAN GREYHOUND. 

The Italian greyhound is, as might be supposed, a native of 
the country whence it derives its name ; it is a very small, de- 
Ijcate creature, heing a miniature portrait of a highbred grey- 
Jioundoftbe very Brst class ; and it ba8\)ee>ii occ«a\oTMiVVj t^- 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 49 

sorted to as a cross, to give greater fineness of form and coat 
to a coarse stock of the ordinary greyhound. The Italian grey- 
hound is very fleet, but is, of course, too feeble to be of any 
service in coursing, as he could not hold a hare^ if even he suc- 
ceeded in overtaking her. 

I have known some^ however^ less diminutive than usual> 
employed successfully in coursing rabbits. They are extremely 
eager and vivacious, full of life and spirit, and make most engag- 
ing pets. The Italian greyhound, from being in such esteem wim 
the fair sex, fetches a high price — from five to ten guineas being 
regarded as by no means unusual, if the animal be a higUy bred 
and handsome specimen. 

Mr. Nolan, of Bachelor's-walk, Dublin, has some of the finest 
I have ever seen, and also, I think, the smallest greyhound in the 
world — a dog, now very old, not exceeding nine inches in height. 
This diminutive creature is beginning to exhibit the moral, as 
well as the physical infirmities of age ; he is very testy and ir- 
ritable, and appears to think himself as well entitled to respect 
from his canine comrades, and as well able to command it when 
necessary, as the largest amongst them ; his seems, indeed, *' a 
vast soul in a little carcass." 



THE TURKISH GREYHOUND. 

There are two varieties of this dog, both equally destitute of 
hair, but one being more decidedly a^eyhound, and of superior 
stature to the other. Colour, usually a leaden or dusky purple ; 
stature of the former breed, about twenty, and the latter about 
twelve inches. 

Colonel Smith considers this to be the same with the naked 
dog of Mexico, and the Ood dog, formerly worshipped as a 
deity by the Xauxa and Huanca Indians. This dog is very apt 
to uxint the posterior molar teeth, or grinders, at the back of the 
lower jaw, and sometimes the upper. 

Colonel Smith suggests, that the absence of hair may be 
caused by chronic mange. I think this very improbable, and 
that it is far more likely to be the result of a burning sun, in a 
very dry atmosphere. 



THE TIGER HOUND OF SOUTH AMERICA. 

This is a taU, showy dog, reacmfeYiiv^ ^Olaa ^^-^wss^^^ssm^^ 
but 8omewba,t more robustly foxiii^^. COixsvax ^iM&a^'^ "^^ ^^s^ 



50 NATURAL HI8T0BT OV THE DOO. 

blue ground, with tan and brown clouds^ resembling the mark- 
ings of the Great Dane. It is, of course, improperly styled 
'^Tiger'* hound, as there is no tiger in America— that name 
bein^ given by the natives to the Ja^ar^ an animal almost 
equally dangerous and powerful with his Asiatic congener. 

The Ti^er hound is not courageous^ activity being more 
called for than courage — ^that latter quality^ indeed, being calcu- 
lated to lead the dogs into unnecessary dan^r. He usually 
reaches twenty-eight or twenty-nine inches m height at the 
shoulder. This dog has not unfrequently been brought to Bri- 
tain, and passed off as the Spanish bloodhound — a dog which he 
closely resembles in form^ save that he is more like a grey- 
hound. 



CHAPTER VI. 

The second class of domestic dogs may be most aptly repre- 
sented by the Hounds ; but^ from what I have already said in 
my introductory remarks, it will readily be perceived that not 
only does this class present less appearance of originality than 
either of the others, but also that its members will require 
greater subdivision, in proportion as they, in their characters, 
approach more or less to the first or third classes, viz., to those 
of greyhounds or mastiffs. Hounds, properly so called, and 
more properly the true type of this class, must be treated of se- 
parately. 

Amon^ the most striking members of the first doubtful por- 
tion of this second class of dogs, or those who approximate most 
nearly to the greyhound family — awhile they are, at the same 
time, by no means true greyhounds — ^I may enumerate ' 

The Great Banish Dog, type of this group ; 
. The Spanish Bloodhound ; 
The African Bloodhound ; 
The French Matin; 
The Feral Dog of St. Domingo ; 
The Cattle Dog of Cuba ; 
The Pariah, or Indian Street Dog ; 
The Mexican Dog, or Taygote •, 
The Wolf'Dog of Florida. 



NATURAL HIBTORY 



the y&ej la^;est doga with which we are at present acquainted. 




ful i hU head is elongated, bat the mozzte does not taper 
point-— jt is, on the contrary, somewhat truncated, looking a 



xxle. The coat of the Dane is close and short, and its colour, 
althongh occasionaUy fulvous or yellow, is more frequently a 
bluish, slaty white, marked with spots, or rather blotches, of 
brown and black. Tbe ears of the Dane are short, and droop, 
but Tery slightly. I never yet saw an imported specimen that 
had not tiie ears cropped off close to the skuU. In its native 
oonntry the Dane is employed chiefly in bcar-hanting ; it was 
also formerly used in the chase oC ttft %\k. V\.''a-TO*»'\os?ei^«i^«- 

• iBvaiiidBVTHdcna»taitiJiAs\>u 



52 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 

that the Danes brought this dog with them to Ireland when 
they invaded that country, and that it was employed as an aux- 
iliary in wolf-hunting. Once the matter came to a regular 
grapple^ few dogs could have proved more serviceable ; and few 
could have afforded a better cross with our own ancient wolf-dog. 
That such crossing did take actually take place, is more than pro- 
bable ; and hence the many misconceptions that have since arisen 
relative to the real characters of our genuine Irish wolf-dog. 
Hamilton Rowan had some very fair specimens; so had Lord 
Altamont — also Lord O'Keil ; but by far the finest I ever had 
the good fortune to see, was "Hector," the property of his 
Grace the Duke of Buccleuch, still livii^, about ten years ago, 
at Dalkeith palace.* Hector stood a tri& more than thirtv-two 
inches in height at the shoulder ; notwithstanding that when I 
measured him he was close upon his twentieth year, and conse- 
quently much drooped. I had the honour of receiving an inte- 
resting communication from the duke respecting him, in which 
his grace stated, that Hector had been purchs^ed by his bro- 
ther. Lord John Scott, from a student at Dresden, and that the 
breed were called, in Germany and Saxony, ** boar-dogs." His 
grace also informed me that Hector was the tallest dog he had 
ever seen. 

Hector was very good-natured, and far from being quarrel- 
some. He frequently took a walk into the little town of Dal- 
keith, on which occasions he was often followed by the street 
dogs, and they would sometimes even venture upon an attack. 
Until an absolute aggression was made, however. Hector con- 
tented himself with proceeding on his way in dignified contempt ; 
but if a Newfoundland, mastiff, or other dog at all approachmg 
to his own size, dared to meddle with him, he would ** turn him 
up" in a twinkling, and, raising his hind leg, treat him with 
the strongest mark of canine contumely. 

I had a son of Hector's, not, however, true bred, but pro- 
duced from a South American dam, of the so-called ^^^r-hound 
breed. " Lincoln" was his name. This was, without excep- 
tion, the best dog I ever knew. In attachment and sagacity 
he more than equalled the spaniel, and his courage was of the 
most indomitable kind. Often have I seen him from my win- 
dow engaged in conflict with two or three large Newfoundland 
dogs resident in the ne^hbourhood, and have rushed to the res- 
cue, but have as often K)und him victorious ere I could inter- 
fere. Lincoln's onlv fault was a propensity to kill cats ; and of 
this he was eventually cured, by one of those animals, at whom 
Jie rushed with open mouth, mistaking laia ixixy iot -^X^t.-^ , wcA 

* Since dend, and preserved by Mr. Catftae oi Bid\Tv\>w%Vu 



NA TUBAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 53 

rubbing herself, purring, against the very jaws that were open 
to crush her. 

I must here record an instance of this noble dog's sagacity. 
I was in the habit of bathing every morning at the extremity 
of the chain pier of Kewhaven, about the distance of a mile 
from where I dwelt. At this time I was a student of medicine, 
and, during the summer months, attended the Botanical lee 
tures of Dr. Graham, delivered in the Botanic Garden, Inver- 
leith-row, on my way home from the sea^ and very near the 
house of my respected and kind stepfather. Dr. Chej0ie. I 
used to take Lincoln with me on those occasions, and, on my 
return, used to dismiss him at the garden gate, and go in to lec- 
ture. On one occasion I recollected, when about half way 
home, that I had forgotten my towel, in the shed appropriated 
to the accommodation of bathers at the pier end. More in jest 
than earnest, I turned to the dog, and said, showing my empty 
hands, *' Lincoln, I have lost my towel, so and seek it." To 
my surprise, the sagacious creature, after looking for an instant, 
fi]^ at my empty hands, and then at the towel of my compa- 
nion, turned and set off at a rapid pace back towards Newhaven. 
At the moment I thought but little of the matter ; for I con- 
cluded that the dog would retrace his steps for a short distance, 
and then return ; but he had not reappeared when I reached 
the gate of the Botanic Garden : so I entered, and, as usual, 
heard lecture ; but what was my astonishment when, lecture 
being over, I left the gardens, and found the faithful and intelli- 
gent animal waiting for me, with my missing towel in his mouth. 

Colonel H. Smith (Nat. Lib. Mam., vol. x.) describes the 
boar-do^ as an allied breed to the Dane, yet not altogether iden- 
tical wim him, and speaks of one that stood '* litue less than 
four feet hi^h at the snoulder.*' It was doubtless so reputed; 
but Colonel Smith did not himself either see or measure the 
dog in question. I doubt not but that the animal was very tall, 
but I most strenuously deny any dog being as large as a horse, 
I am also disposed to the belief that the smooth Dane is the 
true dog, and his rough brother a cross. Colonel Smith also 
styles the boar-dog the ** Suliot dog." Now Suli is a very lim- 
ited district of Albania, occupying scarcely six hundred square 
miles in extent, and lying south, whereas these dogs are natives 
chiefly of the regions north of the Balkan. I think that Colonel 
Smith has been led into this misnomer from a hasty view of 
Gmelin's Latin designation of the great Dane, Ccmis SuiUits, 
derived evidently from the employment to which the dogs were 
devoted, viz., hunting the sus or hog, and ivot €cQ>\s^AlBs&\s3Fi:«2^&s^ 
where they were bred. In ibft o\^et ^paScoJMvj^, ^^^Xsrass^^kR*©' 
are evidently of the great Daxu^ sVacV, VvQcl^ ^a^^^l'^^'^S^^*^ 



54 NATURAL HISTORY OF THS DOG. 

rough greyhound ; and probabljr such were many of our later 
Irish wolf-hounds^ after the original breed had grown some- 
what scarce. 

THE SPANISH BLOODHOUND. 

This is the dog rendered so infamous by its employment in 
the chase of runaway negro slaves in South America and the 
Spanish West Indian Islfuids. 

In form it is intermediate between the mastiff and the grey- 
hound^ but i^proximates more closely to the latter than to the 
former. Its colour is usually tan or liver colomr ; when pied, 
the purity of the breed is susceptible of doubt; the coat is ex- 
tremely fine ; the ears are semi-erect ; when the animal is ex- 
cited, they are pricked somewhat forward ; the muzzle and tips 
of the ears are dark ; the tail is fine as a rush. 

The Spanish bloodhound stands from twenty six to twenty- 
eight incnes in height at the shoulder — seldom more, and often 
less. Columbus^ when he invaded America^ numbered a staff 
of twentT bloodhounds as part of his army. More recently, in 
1795, a nundred of these fierce dogs ymte sent to Jamaica fh>m 
the Havanna, to be employed in the Maroon war. Dallas, 
in his " History of the Maroons," tells us that General Walpole 
ordered a review of these doss and their chasseurs, or keepers, 
principally coloured Spaniards, that he might obieorve their con- 
duct ; and accordingly proceeded to a place called Seven Rivers, 
accompanied by Colonel Skinner, who was appointed to con- 
duct the attack. " Notice of his coming having preceded him, 
a parade of the chasseurs was ordered, and they were taken to 
a distance from the house, in order to be advanced when the 
guard alighted. On his arrival, the commissioner (who bad 
procured the dogs), having paid his respects, was desired to 
parade them. The Spaniards soon appeared at the end of a 
gentle acclivity, drawn out in a line, containing upwards of 
forty men, with their dogs in front, unmuzzled, and held by 
cotton ropes. On receivinff the command * yire, " they discharged 
their fusees, and advanced as upon a real attack. This was in- 
tended to ascertain what effect would be produced on the dogs, 
if engaged under a fire of the Maroons. The voUey was no 
sooner discharged than the dogs rushed forward with the great- 
est fury, amidst the shouts of the Spaniards, who were dragged 
on by them with irresistible force. Some of the dogs, madden- 
ed by the shout of attack while held back by the ropes, seized 
on the stocks of the guns in the hands of their keepers, and tore 
pieeea out of them. Their impetuosity was w ™».^^3to.\»VlfeK^ 
frane with di&culty stopped before t\iey xea^WL ^^ ^^sv«t^ 



NATURAL HI8TOBT OF THE DOG. 56 

who found it necessary to get into the chaise from which he had 
alighted, and if the most strenuous exertions had not been made> 
they would have seized upon his horses." Some writers on the 
dog have confounded the Spanish bloodhound with the Cuban 
mastiff; a very ^reat error, as no two dogs could well be more 
dissimilar; and m one publication by Mr. Martin, entitled 
'* Knight's Weekly Volume," we have actually a figure given 
of the Cuban mastiffs some time since kept in the tower mena- 
gerie, taken from the '* Menageries," a publication under the 
patronage of the *' Society for JPromoting Entertaining Know- 
i€^e," but with the new title of '* Cuban Bloodhounds or Mas- 
iiffi," Naturalists who make such mistakes must be satisfied 
to submit to the friendlv correction of dog-fanciers. I saw, a 
few years ago, a beautiful bitch of this breed in possession of 
our Surgeon-General, Sir Philip Crampton. She was light- 
coloured, evidently very highly bred, of most graceful form, 
and gentle in her demeanour, but by no means to be trified 
with. It is to be regretted that, no thoroughbred mate being 
to be had, her progeny have not been preserved pure. 

Closely allied to the Spanish bloodhound is the African 
HouND« a graceful and beautiful creature, partaking also, to a 
great extent, of the shape and aspect of the pointer. A leash of 
uiese, two males and one female, were brought over some years 
1^0 by Colonel (then major) Denham, and by him presented to 
we then existing Tower Menagerie. The colonel stated to the 
caretaker, Mr. Cops, that he had himself often hunted the ga- 
zelle with them ; and that they were possessed of extraordinary 
swiftness, scent, and cunning. These dogs were also, at one pe- 
riod, used, asx>ther bloodhounds, in tracking a fugitive enemy 
or marauder to his retreat. Colonel Denham*s hounds appeared 
quite subdued in confinement ; they had lost all their natural fire 
and sprightliness,had gradually become morose, sullen, and spite 
ful, and no efforts could induce them to perpetuate their race. 
Neither of these dogs are, however, properly entitled to the 
epithet of bloodhound; they appear to have acc^uired it only 
from their employment, and probably owe their origin to a 
cross at some remote period between the true, long-eared blood- 
hound of Britain and the more eager and active greyhound. I 
am the more confirmed in this opinion from the fact, that both 
these dogs closely resemble the cro^^-^re^/deerhound, sometimes 
used in the Highlands of Scotland, where that animal is thus 
bred. It is only fur that that gentle and affectionate animal — 
the genuine bloodhound — a dog far from being either cruel or 
ferodoujB, idionld be distinctly Be^vraXftdi fe^\Sk. ^QD&36fc>\sia. ^SiSRSfc,- 
putable namesakes. 



56 NATURAJL HISTOBT OF THE DOO. 



THE FRENCH MATIN. 

Many contradictory descriptions of this dog are given by na 
turalists, some of whom describe him as a smooth dc^^ similar 
to the Dane ; others as a rough and lurcher-like mongrel. Buf- 
fouy tiie first who brought the matin into anything l&e notice, 
describes and figures lum (quarto ed.) as a sortof rouffh-coated 
greyhound^ of only moderate stature, and not remarkable for 
an^ physical or moral quality. Mr. Martin describes a matin* 
which he saw in Paris as a smooth-coated, glaucous-coloured 
dog, standing three feet hi^h, and as reminding him of the vast 
stature and beauty which cnaracterized the Trim wolf-dog. 

Colonel Hamilton Smith (Nat. Lib. Mam. yol. x.) describes 
this dog as equalling the Dane in stature, but having a flatter 
forehead, a more pointed nose, ruggedhaxr, colour usually white, 
with one or more clouds of brown ; ** the ears, also, are more 
triangular, and the tips bent down, showing upon the whole a 
certam intermixture of the older Gallic dog. It is fierce, but 
not remarkable for daring." Against this description I have 
nothing to object, except as to stature. The great Dane, usu- 
ally, as I have already stated, exceeds thirty inches in height at 
the shoulder, and I do not think anybody ever saw a matin that 
stood over twenty-eight; indeed I should say that twenty-six inches 
is about the average height. Bufifon, with perhaps pardonable 
nationality, but in the absence of both sound reasoning and com- 
mon sense, has put forward the matin as the origin of the dog, 
and, in his very fanciful ^enealog^r, derives many noble and 
valuable breeds immediately from him. 

THE FERAL DOO OF ST. DOMINGO. 

This dog is fully described by Colonel Smith, who also gives 
a figure of him. It appears to be a sort of wild hound, ap- 
proaching closely to the form of the greyhound, but somewhat 
coarser, and to be the descendant of uie bloodhounds formerly 
used by the Spaniards, to effect their conquests in the western 
hemisphere. In stature. Colonel Smith describes this dog as, 
*' at least equal to the largest Scottish or Russian greyhound, 
or about twenty-eight inches high at the shoulder, wim the head 
shaped like the wire-haired terrier ; large light brown eyes ; 
small ears, pointed and only slightly bent down at the tips ; 
the neck long and full ; the chest very deep ; the croup slightly 
arched; the nmbs muscular, but light ; ttnd t\i^ taaV, not ToaAh- 

• Ithini th»t the One animal which attnwited Mi. M«rttn?» ticittsfc td»iX\im* V«a. 



VATURAI. HISTORY OF THE DOG. 57 

ing to the tanns, scantily famished with long dark hair ; the 
muzzle was black, as well as the eyelids, lips, and the whole 
hide ; but his colonr was an nniform pale .bine ash, the hair 
being short, scanty, coarse^ and apparently without a woolly 
fur beneath. On ihe lips, inside of the ears, and above the 
eyes, there was some whitish grey ; and the back of the ears 
was dark slate colour. The look and motions of this animal at 
once told consciousness of superiority. As he passed down the 
streets, all the house curs slunk away. When within our lodg- 
ing tiie family dog had disappeared, although he had neither 
growled nor bark^ His master said he was innoffensive, but 
requested he might not be touched." 

These seem to be the St. Domingo greyhounds mentioned by 
Buffon. 

THE CATTLE-DOG OF CUBA. 

I describe this animal here — although his place is, perhaps, 
more properly with the Newfoundland races — ^because he ap- 
pears to be an offshoot from the variety I have just been de- 
scribing, and is frequently improperly called the Cuba blood- 
hound. 

The head of this dos is coarser, broader at the temples, and 
does not taper so mudi at the muzzle as that of the preceding 
variety ; tibe back is flatter ; the hair longer and coarser ; and 
the dog altogether farther removed from tne greyhound. This 
dog sometimes attains ffreat size. I had one, whose measure- 
ments I shall give as foUow : — 

Ft. In. 

From the top of head to ground 

Height from ground to foreshoulder 

Length from nose to tail 

Giru round chest behind foreleg 

Girth of foreleg 

Length from occiput to muzzle 

Girw of head over the ears 

This dog was remarkably fierce and treacherous. On one 
occasion he attacked myself, and I was so dreadfullv torn in 
the conflict, that I was laid up for many weeks, while it was 
months before I recovered the use of my right hand and arm. 

In the West Indies, these dogs are employed to convey cattle 
across rivers, and also to aid them in landing from the ships in 
which they arrive. •* We have often witnessed, when vessels 
with lire stock arrive in our 'Wesllxi^\«xi ^aw«»> ^b.^*^^ ^sijsa. 



3 


6 


2 


8 


6 


1 


3 


4 





10 


1 


2 


2 


1 



58 NATURAL BISTORT 09 THE DOG. 

are hoisted out, by a sling passed round the baae of their horns, 
tiie great assistance they afford to brin^ them to land. For 
when the ox, first suspended by the head, is lowered, and allowed 
to fall into the water, men senerall^r swim, and guide it by the 
horns ; but at other times wis service is performed by one or 
two dosB, who, catching the bewildered ammal by the ears, one 
on eacn side, force it to swim in the direction of the 1<tTiHing 
place, and instantly release their hold when they feel it touches 
the ground."* 

THE HEXICAN DOG. 

A long-backed, ill-shaped animal, not unlike a lurcher ; legs 
comparatively short ; and ears usuaUy cropped. This is iden- 
tical with the Techichi described by Fernandez. 



THE WOLF-DOG OF FLORIDA 

Is described by Mr. Bartram as different from the local wolves 
onl^ in its powers of barking. His anecdote of one which was 
tramed by nis wild master to guard a troop of horses, without 
any human superintendence, proves it to oe highly docile and 
intelligent (Bartram's Travels). This dog stands upwards of 
twenty-seven inches in height ; the ears are erect ; the tail full, 
and bushy. 

THE PARLAH, OR EOTPTLA.N STREET-DOG. 

Thb is probably the ** Keleb" of antiquity, degraded by 
m^e, famine, mongrelism, and general neglect. 

This dog, miserable as is its condition, is not destitute of good 
qualities. It is sagacious, and will not quit its own quarter of 
the town, where it acts as a guard upon the property of the in-, 
habitants ; none will transCTess the limits of their particular 
district, even though offered the most tempting baits. f 

Nor is the Pariah devoid of courage. I recollect an anecdote, 
told, I think, by Captain Brown, on ** Oriental Field Sports," 
of a Pariah ih&t was cast into a tiger's cage, to serve that animal 
for a meal, seizing his monstrous enemy by the nose whenever 
he approached, and by his spirited conduct inspiring the tiger 
with such respect, that it not only ceased attempting to destroy, 
but actually conceived a strong attachment for the dog. 

« 

'JTMt. Lib. Mam. roL z. 
fTbe dogB ofUabon, described by Smrgeou "Wilde, pstweulf. »\xnX\«t \x»^XQS c^»Kv»n« 



NATURAL HISTOBT OF THE DOG. 59 



CHAPTER Vn. 

HOUKDS PROPERLY SO CALLED. 



The Talbot. 
The Bloodhound. 
The Staghonnd. 
The Oriental Honnd. 
The Foxhound. 
The Harrier. 
The Beagle. 
The Kerry Beagle. 
The Otterhound. 



The Spahiih Pointer. 
The Portngueie Pointer. 
The French Pointer. 
The Italian Pointer. 
The Engliih Pointer. 
The Dalmatian, or Car- 
riage Dog. 
The Enaiian Pointer. 



TERRIERS. 



The Rnitian Terrier. 
The Seottiih. 
The Ifle of Skye. 
The English. 



TheMUtew. 

Tlie South American. 

The Turnspit. 

The Harlequin Terrier. 



THE TALBOT 

Is, perhaps, the oldest of our slow hounds. He had a broad 
mouth ; very deep chops ; very long and large pendulous ears ; 
was fine-coated^ and not, as some write, ** rough on the belly ;'* 
his colour was usually a pure white. This was the hound for- 
merly known as '* St. Hubert's breed," and was distinct from 
the bloodhound, though by some confounded with that dog. It 
was remarkable for its deep and sonorous voice ; and it was this 
hound of which Shakspeare was evidently thinking, when he 
wrote— 

** Ify hounds are bred out of the Spartan kind, 
So flew*d, so sanded, and their heads are hung 
With ears tliat sweep away the morning's dew i 
Crook-kneed, and dew-lapped like Theasalian bulls i 
Slow in pursuit, but matched in mouth like bells. 
Each under each.'* 

This was the same with the old Southern hound, and not, as 
Colonel Smith seems to suppose, &\Axic\iixQ\&L>X>. 



It ia probable that ibe Bloodhound sprang directly from 
the preceding dog, having originally been merely individual 
hoanils eelected from the pack of Talbots, on account of dieir 




superior scent or speed j or, perhaps, their aceidentally be- 
ing dart in colour and less noisy of tongue, and from these crr- 
CDmstanceB less liable to be detected by the felon of whom they 
were in pursuit. The bloodhound is a tall, showy hound ; but, 
in a state of purity, seldom attains, and certainly never exceeds, 
twenty-eight inches in height at the shoulder — the averse 
height is twenty-six inches for females, and twenty-seven tor 



a perfect B[)ecimen, be within an inch or two of the animal's 

:ight, from tip to tip across the head. The great Laudseer has 

immortalized tJie Bloodhound in many of his superb p^ntings. 



Among others, Imav name his "Dignity and Impudence,"ri 
^resentins' a noble I^loodhound lookmg out from his kennel, i 
grare anadigniSed majesty ; while a utt\ft Ti\ie-\«icci \s5rris 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE ]>00. 61 

IS at his feet, apparently impudently growling at some approach- 
ing intruder. Those who have seen the originals of this paint- 
ing have pronounced ^^Malvina," a beautiful animal of the breeds 
bred by me^ and recently in my own possession^ but now the pro- 
perty of Robert Sproule, Esq. , of Kildevin, to be greatly superior 
to the Bloodhound pourtrayed by Landseer. Malvina's sire, 
* * Bevis, " figured above, was likewise transferred to canvas by my 
friend C. wey, who, as an animal painter, can be reckoned se- 
cond only to the great master above-mentioned. Malvina 
stands twenty-six inches in height, and her ears measure twenty- 
five in extent, and upwards of five in breadth. The colour of 
the Bloodhound is tan, or black and tan, like an.English terrier ; 
if white be present, the breed is impure. The jowl of the blood- 
hound is deep, and his air majestic and solemn. The vertex of 
the head is remarkably protuberant, and this protuberance is 
characteristic of high breeding. The Bloodhound is not, as 
Colonel Smith supposes, ''silent while following the scent;" 
but he is certainly less noisy than other hounds, and only opens 
occasionally, and even then his bay is easily distinguished, after 
having once been heard, from that of every other description of 
dog. 

It has been frequently suggested that the Bloodhound should 
be once more employed in tracing felons to their hiding place. 
Many have objected to this, on the score of its supposed cruelty ; 
but uiey are not, perhaps, aware that the British Bloodhound 
does notiniure the object of his pursuit ; he merely traces it to 
its lair, and then, by his loud baying, indicates its position to 
his human auxiliaries. I am, however, far from advocating 
an3rthing of the kind — I leave the matter where I found it, to 
be canvassed by others as they please. 

In 1803, the **Thrapston A^ociation" — a society formed in 
Northamptonshire for the suppression of felonyl-procured and 
trained a Bloodhound, for the detection of sheep-stealers. In 
order to prove the utility of the dog, a man was despatched 
from a spot, where a great concourse of people were assembled, 
about ten o'clock, a. m., and an hour afterwards the hound was 
laid on the scent. After a chase of an hour and a half, the 
hound found the man secreted in a tree, many miles from the 
4)lace of starting. 

Mr. Boyle, in his ** Treatise on Air," informs us that a per- 
son of quality, in order to ascertain whether a young Blood- 
hoimd had been well trained, caused one of his servants to walk 
to a town four miles off, and then to a market town three milea 
from thence. The doSt 'without aeeoioXJsi^fcXEkasvV'^'^^ak'vRk^^S^s^- 
8ue, followed him by the scent to t^i^ ?Jc>o>i^\sv^\sJ«^^'^^^^>s=^'^^ 



62 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOQ. 

notwithstanding the multitude of market-people that went along 
the same road, and of travellers that had occasion to cross it ; 
and when he came to the chief market town, he passed through 
the streets without taking any notice of the people there. He 
ceased not till he had ^one to the house where the man he sought 
rested himself, and where he found him in an upper room^ to 
the wonder of those who had accompanied him in his pursuit. 

The only modes of escaping the unerring scent of tlie blood- 
hound were crossing water or spilling blood upon the track. In 
the notes to the ** Lay of the Last Minstrel," Sir W. Scott 
says — '* Barbour informs us that Robert Bruce was repeatedly 
tracked by sleuth-dogs. ♦ On one occasion, he escaped by 
wading a Dowshot down a brook, and thus baffled the scent. 
The pursuers came up — 

** * Bycht to the burn thai pMsy t ware. 

But the Blenth-hoond made slenting there, 
And wareryt lang time ta and fra, 
That he na certain gait conth ga } 
TiU at the hwt John of Lorn 
Fersettvit the Hund the slenth had borne.* 

The Brucet Book VII, 

" A sure way of stopping the dog was to spill blood upon the 
track, which destroyed the discriminating nneness of his scent. 
A captive was sometimes sacrificed on such occasions. Henry 
the Minstrel tells us a romantic story of Wallace^ founded on 
this circumstance. The hero's little band had been joined by 
an Lrishman, named Fawdon, or Fadzean, a dark, savage, and 
suspicious character. After a sharp skirmish at Black Erne- 
side, Wallace was forced to retreat with only sixteen followers. 
The English pursued with a border sleuth-bratch,t or Blood- 
hound. Li the retreat, Fawdon, tired, or affecting to be so, 
would go no farther. Wallace, having in vain argued with 
him, in nasty anger struck off his head, and continued the re- 
treat. When the English came up, their hound stayed upon 
the dead body." 

THE STAOHOUND. 

As the breed of English horses increased in swiftness, sports- 
men found that it became necessary to increase in an equal ra- 
tio the speed of their hounds. From this circumstance, we 
have acquired the Stag-hound, a cross from the Talbot or old 

* I^rmn gleuthf or Blot — tracks especiaUy of YAooA. 
f LfienOly, » track-beagle.'' 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 63 

Bouthem hound or Bloodhound with some lighter stock, probably 
the greyhound — carefully bred back to the desired standard. 

In stature^ individual Staghounds frequently equal the blood- 
hound. Few packsj however, are to be met with exceeding an 
average of twenty-six inches ; and twenty-five inches, at the 
foreshoulder, is more near the general mark. In appearance^ 
the Staghound is a half-bred bloodhound, and he certainly pos- 
sesses one very striking peculiarity in common with that dog-— 
viz., of pertinaciously adhering to the first scent on which he is 
laid. 

The true Staghound has gradually died away since the davs 
of George III.,* and has been replaced by a dog more nearly 
allied to the foxhound, and that for the very reason already 
adduced as having produced the Staghound itself — ^viz., a fur- 
ther increase of speed in the horses employed in the chase. 
Hunting having subsequently become steepleichasing in dis- 
guise, even the old Staghound became too slow for modern taste, 
and he has accordingly been laid on the shelf. The foxhound 
has now become, literally, the ** hound of all work." 

Representations of dogs, very like our staghound, are found 
among ancient Egyptian paintings. We may fitly describe the 
dog indicated by them as the oriental hound. 



THE ORIENTAL HOUND. 

This hound is more like the Staghound than the foxhound> 
difiering from the latter dog in the greater height of its legs, 
and the shortness of its body. 

Colonel Smith gives a figure of one of these dogs, ** jfrom a 
drawing made in Persia of one of several belonging to a Coord- 
ish chief.'* (Nat. Lib. Mam., vol. x.) 

These are said to possess so fine a nose as to be able to trace 
deer several hours after they have passed — a fineness of nose that, 
considering the heat of the climate, and consequent rapid eva- 
poration of the particles of scent, indicate these dogs as superior 
in nose to any European hound — if, perhaps, we except the 
bloodhound. This is by some referred to the hound called the 
breed of St. Louis, from Palestine, to which our hounds owed 
much improvement from crossing. 

In Wilkinson's << Manners and Customs of the Egyptians," 
there is a representation given of a pack of these dogs, from 
which Mr. Jesse (Anecdotes of Dogs, p. 305), not bem^ auffi.- 

* Aa ardent admirer wad paitoix ot tV^v^'^'^^^'^V 



64 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 

ciently acquainted with the subject to distinguish the staghound 
from the foxhound^ takes occasion to argue that the latter dog 
is identical with the eastern hound, and consequently of very 
ancient, instead of^ as he actually is, of comparatiTely modern 
origin. It is from this dog that the red hounds of the continent 
used, in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, for hunting the 
wolf and boar, n)rung ; they had been brought thither from 
Palestine by St. Louis, in the thirteenth century : their princi- 
pal characteristics were speed, bottom, and high courage ; in 
general aspect tjiay seem to have resembled our bloodhounds, 
but were rather lighter, and more like the staghound. 



THE FOXHOUND 

Appears to have been produced from the staghound, by a 
cross of greyhound, and probably also of a terrier. He is less in 
size than the staghound ; has smaller and less hound-like ears, 
which are also usually rounded off when young. The Foxhound 
was unknown to us until within the last two hundred years.* 

He is a bold, dashing hound, up to all sorts of sport, and 
having ** more of the devil" in his composition than any of his 
congeners. He is now found so useful that he is made to su- 
persede all other hounds, and is bred to size, &c., according to 
the sport for which he may be required. Fox-hunting is no 
longer hunting — ^it is nothing but steeple-chasing ; and I cannot 
dwell upon it with any pleasure, when I reflect on the barba- 
rities which spring from it, as it is now followed. 



THE HARRIER. 

This was a smaller hound than the preceding, exhibiting an 
appearance of higher breeding, and resembling a miniature of 
the old talbot. Its height averaged about eighteen inches ; 
it was remarkable for possessing a delightful melod^r of voice, 
and for the leisurely and methodic manner in which it pursued 
its game. Hare-hunting was, when managed thus, an amuse- 
ment of almost a philosophic character, in following which, the 
mind had time to contemplate the efforts of one animal to elude 
pursuit, and of the other to frustrate those efforts. The har- 
rier is now, likewise, gone, having been wholly superseded by 

* Jh the account of Queen ElizabetVs ImtLtlng ettabliBhment, no mention is made of 
- the foxhound ; and the flnt mention of him ot -wblOoi -ve t«»A., \» laWws -<«\Vd\u V^ aboye 
period th»n beyond it 



HATUBAI. HI8TOBT OF THE DOG. 65 

f 

the £>xhoimd; a dwarf variety of which dog is now bred for 
the purpose of hare-htmting — an amusement which, I must add* 
is itself rapidly Mling into disrepute, as not being sufficiently 
exciting. Fox-hunters are in the habit of characterizing hare- 
hunting as an amusement only fit for ladies and elderly genile- 
men/ 

THE BEAGLE. 

The Beagle, the brach of olden time, the smallest of our 
hounds, and the most melodious in voice. The beagle rarely 
exceeds fourteen inches in height, and, if less, is so much the 
more highly valued. I saw one some years ago, at Mr. Nolan's, 
Dublin, only seven inches in height at the shoulder, well-eared, 
and in every respect beautifully formed. Mr. Beere, of Drum- 
condra possesses a specimen almost as diminutive. 

These little hounds were well-known in Queen Bess's days, 
and that sovereign lady had little Beagles, called singing Bea- 
gles, so small that they could be placed in a man's glove I It 
was then quite of common occurrence that an entire pack of 
them should be carried to the field in a pair of panniers. 

There are, and seem ever to have been, two varieties of Bea- 
gle — a rough and a smooth. The former seems to have been 
the dog noticed by Oppian, under the name of " Agasseus,** 

THE KEBRT BEAGLE. 

I introduce this hound here, although he shoald more pro- 
perly have followed in the immediate steps of the staghound, in 
order to point out the absurdity of his name. The Kerry Beagle 
is a fine, tall, dashing hound, averaging twenty-six inches in 
height, and occasionally individual do^s attaining to twenty- 
eight ; has deep chops ; broad, full, and pendulous ears ; and, 
when highly bred, is hardly to be distinguished from an indif- 
ferent bloodhound. In Ireland alone do we find this hound. 
We have two packs — ^both in the South — one belonffing to John 
O'Connell, Esq., of Killamey, and the other to H. Herbert, 
Esq., of Mucross. They appear to be the genuine descendants 
of the old Southern hoand, bred somewhat lighter, to suit mo- 
dem taste, and are used exclusively for deer-hunting. 

THE OTTEB-HOUXD. 

Mr. Jesse, in his ''Anecdotes," has evideatl^ \&\^^Akss&. ^^b^ 
dc^ and its peculiarities of conCoTmaXAoii. 
iie Otter-hound appears toliave s^tw\« ^s«w^^^^«»\3(<«^=*'^»^ 



66 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOO. 

the Southern hound and a rough terrier ; at least so his appear- 
ance indicates. His head and ears are smooth, and the latter 
are very pendulous ; while the neck, and the remainder of the 
body, are covered with coarse and wiry hair. The colour of 
the Otter-hound is usually sandy red. 

As the otter is no longer hunted with suoh form and cere- 
mony as of old, the genuine Otter-hounds are fast becoming lost, 
and their place is supplied by the rough, wire-haired Scotch 
terrier, especially that breed called Skye terrier. A cross of 
the bull-dog is an improvement ; and even ordinary bull-ter- 
riers are not to be despised, for when it comes to the death tus- 
sel, the otter requires a game antagonist. 

Attempts have frequently been made to breed or make Otter- 
hounds, resembling the ancient snK)0th-headed, rough-bodied 
sort, but without success ; it having been found impossible to 
produce any but such as were either all rough, or all smooth. 
Otter-hunting certainly requires resolute dogs ; but as the pur- 
suit is now only followed to destroy this piscatory marauder, we 
need not be so very particular as to the modus operandi. The 
otter is no longer regarded as game, but branded as a felon, and 
his destruction hailed with deught. 



THE SPANISH POINTER. 

This is a large, big-boned hound, standing high on its legs, 
with very heavy ears, and a deep jowl. The Spanish Pointer 
is usually white, with occasionally some brown or red patches. 
He is remarkable for his stanchness, and for the facility with 
which he can be taught his duty. It appears to admit of no 
doubt that the pointer, and other setting-dogs, were originally 
hounds accustomed to trace their game by the scent, and then, 
rushing in, secure it ; but, previous to this rush, it was natural 
to them to pause for a second or so, to collect their energies for 
the spring. This momentary pause has been, by training, con- 
verted into a decided stop ; and the dog has been taught to sus- 
pend his intended rush, as it is the privilege of his miB^ter, and 
not himself, to finish the work the dog has only begun. Such 
is the hereditary instinct of the highly bred Spanish Pointer, 
that a whelp, not more than five months old, has been known, 
when, without any previous training, brought for the first time 
into the field, to point steadily at lymg game. I heard one in- 
Btance, indeed, related of a whelp of this age, and under such 

circumstances as J describe, actually bacldag Us damm fwr ^ixtt. 

This sounds strange ; but the paxty to ^\vo\nL\ MXi\xA^\&^^Qt 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 67 

the anecdote, is not merely a thorough sportsman, but a tho- 
roi^h gentleman, whose word is beyond suspicion. 

'&e Spanish Pointer is apparently a dog of very ancient ex- 
traction ; but not, as his name would imply, of Spanish origin — 
at least not remotely so ; for the primitive breed is traceable to 
the East. Indeed some ancient Egyptian figures, published b^ 
Cailland, distinctly represent a dog, beyond question of this 
variety, in the act of pointing. The old Spanish Pointer is, 
when perfectly thoroughbred, remarkable as possessing a cleft 
nose, similar to the Russian variety, presently to be described. 

This dog was found too heavy for the ardour of British sports- 
men, and, with the old Talbot, or Manchester hound, sunk gra- 
dually into disuse ; and has since become supplanted by a lighter, 
more active, and energetic dog, better suited to the tastes of our 
eager countrymen, viz., the English Pointer. 



THE POBTUGUESE POINTER 

Is lighter than the Spanish ; has a feathered tail ; is unsteady 
and quarrelsome ; and by no means to be commended. 



THE FRENCH POINTER 

Wants the stanchness of our English dog. He is less objec- 
tionable than the variety just described, but still not the thing. 



THE ITALIAN POINTER. 

I thus name a dwarf variety of pointer that I formerly de- 
scribed in the ** Sportsman." This is a perfect miniature va- 
riety of a very higldy-bred English pointer, seldom exceeding 
one foot in height. I saw one about twelve years ago, in pos- 
session of Stewart Menteith, Esq., of Closebum, Dumfriesshire, 
and another about the same time, inposscssion of Mr. Mather, 
an artist, resident in Edinburgh. These little dogs had exqui- 
site noses, and would set game as stanchly as any other pointer, 
but were, of course, too small for field use. 



THE ENGLISH POINTER. 

Tbig has evidently been pTod\x<ife^ \i^ ^ ^o%& X^^^nr^s^bcl "^teR. 



i 



68 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 

Spanish variety and the foxhound ; and it is to this circum- 
stance that we are to attribute his energy and fire. 

The English Pointer is remarkable for his extraordinary 
stanchness. Pluto and Juno^ property of the celebrated 
Colonel Thornton, stood for an hour and a quarter in the act of 
pointing, without moving during the entire of that time, while 
they were being drawn and painted by the late eminent artist, 
Mr. Gilpin. 

A well-trained Pointer is very valuable, and will fetch a high 
price. Dash, a fine pointer, also belonging to Colonel Thorn- 
ton, was sold for £160 worth of champagne and Bur^ndy, one 
hogshead of claret, an elegant gun, and another Pointer, with 
the proviso, that if any accident should at any time disable 
the dog, he was to be returned to the colonel, at the price of 
£30 ! (Sportman's Repos.) 

The following anecdote proves the perfection of training 
to which Pointers may be brought by proper discipline. 
A friend of Mr. Jesse's '< went out shootmg with a gent^man 
celebrated for the goodness of his breed : they took the field 
with eight of these dogs. If one pointed, all the rest imme- 
diately backed steadily. If a partridge was shot, they all 
dropped to charge, and whichever dog was called to bring 
the bird, the rest never stirred till they were told to do so.** 
(Anec. Dogs., p. 283.) 

A Pointer hates a bad shot ; my old friend Captain Brown 
relates the following capital anecdote. A gentleman having 
requested the loan of a Pointer dog from a friend, was informed 
by him that the dog would behave very well so long as he could 
kill his birds ; but if he frequently missed them, the dos would 
run home and leave him. The Pointer was accordingly sent, 
and the following day was fixed for trial ; but, unfortunately, 
his new master happened to be a remarkably bad shot. Bird 
after bird rose and was fired at, but still pursued its flight un-^ 
touched, till at last the dog became careless, and often missed 
his game. As if seemingly willing, however, to give one chance 
more, he made a dead stop at a fern bush, with his nose pointed 
downward, the forefoot bent, and the tail straight and steady. 
In this position he remained firm till the sportsman was close 
to him, with both barrels cocked ; then movmg steadily forward 
for a few paces, he at last stood still near a bnnch of heather^ 
the tail expressing the anxiety of the mind by moving regular- 
ly backwards and forwards. At last, out sprung a fine old 
blackcock. Bang, bang, went both barrels — but the bird 
escaped unhurt. The patience of the do^ vraa now <\uite ex- 
b^uBted, 4n(i, imteai of dropping to Oiax^^, \v^ VM^^^\i^^l 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 69 

round, placed his tail between his legs^ ^are one howl> long and 
loud, and set off as fast as he could to his own home. 

Pointers have been known to go out by themselves in search 
of game, and i£ they fmnd, to return for their master, and, by 
gestures, induce him to take his gun, and follow them to the 
spot. 

The comparative merits of Pointer and setter have been made 
the subject of considerable controversy. Much may be said 
on both sides, and I shall myself have a few words to say when 
I come to treat of the latter dog. 



THE DALMATIAN, OR CARRIAGE DOG.* 

This is a very handsome dog, in every respect similar to the 
pointer. It is not, in its present state, remarkable for sagacity 
or fineness of scent ; but these deficiencies may have arisen 
from the disuse of its natural powers through so many genera- 
tions^ One instance of a Dalmatian having been broKcn to the 
nm, fell, some years ago, under my own observation, and the 
log proved himself worthy of his training. Colonel Smith 



gun, 

aog _ ^ . . 

figures a large and showj dog as the supposed original of the 
Palmatian. His figure is taken from a print published at Ca- 
diz a number of years ago. The original had been brought 
from India. This figure is, however, very dissimilar from our 
carriaffe»dog, and resembles far more the tiger-hound^ already 
described. 



THE RUSSIAN POINTER. 



This dog is covered with coarse, wiry hair, like the Russian 
terrier. He is somewhat less in stature than the ordinary 
pointer, and is lower in the shoulder. His nose is cleft, hence 
he is fi^uently called the ** double-nosed pointer." He is 
very stanch, and is held in deservedly high estimation ; but I 
have been given to understand that his temper is unyielding, 
and that he requires great care and caution in training. When 
a good do^ of tnis breed is weU and thoroughly broken in, he is 
considered very valuable, and fetches a long price. 

* This If a perflectljr diftinct rarleiy from ihfi Greof DaiUy va^\si vswasus^Kta^^ 
eoa/buaded with Jiim. 



70 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 

The prevailing opinion among sportsmen is, that the Russian 
Pointer requires fresh training, to a certain extent, at the com- 
mencement of each season ; but so, indeed, do most of his 
smooth-coated brethren. 



THE TERRIERS. 

THE RUSSIAN TERRIER. 

The Terriers are a very hardy race of dogs, full of courage 
and spirit. They will face anything, no matter what may be 
the disparity of size, and will fight with the greatest vigour and 
fury. 

The Russian Terrier exceeds his.brethren in size and strength, 
frequently attaining to the height of twenty-six inches at the 
shoulder. He stands high and straight on his legs, and is not 
altogether unlike the mastiff in general form ; but islidbter and 
more active. Two well-sized dogs are considered sufficient to 
grapple with an ordinary wolf, and half a dozen are more than 
enough to puzzle a bear. The Russian Terrier is in consider- 
able request in Scotland as a watch-dog — a post for which he is 
eminently qualified, uniting, as he does, the force of the mastiff 
with the vigilance of the Terrier. He is also a good and willing 
water-dog, and is, on this account, a valuable auxiliary in otter- 
hunting. He would make a good retriever ; but, unfortunately, 
is of too fierce a temper, wul not bear the whip, and is what 
sportsmen term hard-mouthed — ^being given to injure the game 
with his teeth. The colour of the Russian Terrier is usually 
black and tan ; but the largest dogs of the breed that I have 
seen were of a reddish-brown colour. I saw two do^ of this 
colour about ten years ago, in Edinburgh, one of which mea- 
sured twenty-seven, and the other twenty-eight inches in height 
at the shoulder — equal also in bulk and bone to some mastifi&. 
These are known also in Germany, where they are called 
** boar-searchers," 

THE SCOTCH TERRIER. 

There are two varieties of the common Scotch Terrier. One 
which stands rather high on his legs, \a waw^Wy oi «wt«.Tvftc^-t^^ 



colaor, and very strongly made — he stands about eighteen or 
twenty inches in hdgh^ and b conunonir called the " Highland 
terrier." The other is lower, long-backed, and ahort-tefged ; 
hair more wiry, but not so long as in the former ; moutti also 
not so broad, and muEzle longer. This latter variety is the dog 
celebrated by Sir W. Scott as the Pepper and Mnstard, or 
Dandle Dinmont breed. Francis Carter, Esq., the same gen- 
tleman of whom I have already spoken as posacssing the <&er. 
bounds, has a pair of beautiful little Binmont terriers — about 
the best, the di^ especially', that I have ever seen. 



it perfection in tlie 
'q particular. 




Mmewbat resembles the preceding, but is even longer in the 
body, lower on the legs, and is covered with very long, but not 
coarse hair ; its ears are erect, and tufted at the extremities. 
Ail the Scotch terriers are " varmint " in the estreme, and are 
on this account great favourites with young gentlemen when 
home forthe holidays, being equalled by no other breed of dog 
in tlie ardour with which they hunt and destroy the rat, cat, 
weasel — in short, every thing that hasfighl in it ; and, lacking 
other game, they will gladly and Scrcely engage in combat with 
each other. 



72 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 



THE ENGLISH TEBBIEB, 

A light, actiye, and graceful little dog, usually of a black and 
tan cmour — and those of this tint are the best — ^but some- 
times white. If black and tan, they should not present a 
speck of white; and if white, they should be entirely of that 
colour. 

The English Terrier is, in combat, as game as the Scotch, 
but less hardy in enduring cold or constant immersion in water. 
It appears most probable that the rough or Scotch breed was 
the primitive stock, and that the smooth or English yarieties 
are the result of artificial culture. A small, well-marked, Eng- 
lish Terrier, under seven pounds weight, will, "if as good as he 
looks," fetch from five to ten guineas. The celebrated dog 
" Billy," who killed the hundred rats in less than five minutes, 
was a white English Terrier, with a dark patch on the side of his 
head. 

THE MALTESE. 

This is by some naturalists classed with the spaniels ; but in 
the form of its skull, in its erect ears, rough muzzle, and deter- 
mination in the pursuit of vermin, it presents characteristics 
sufficient to induce me to place it in the present group. It is 
usually black, but sometimes white — in any case it snould be 
but of one colour. An uncle of mine had one named ironically 
"Lion," who, although under five pounds weight, killed an 
enormous rat in a few seconds, in my presence, in the Hill- 
street Baths, Edinburgh. 

This dog was well Imown to the ancients, is figured on many 
Koman monuments, and was described by Strabo. His small 
size, and want of strength in proportion to his courage, have, 
liowever, long reduced tnis spirited little dog to the condition of 
a mere lapdog ; and as he has been superseded by, perhaps, 
prettier, and at all events more easily obtained pets, he nas now 
become almost extinct. Landseer has, not long since, intro- 
duced one into a splendid painting, as " The Last of his Race." 



THE SOUTH AMERICAN TERRIER 

Is something like the preceding, but less hairy, and with a 
more pointed muzzle. It is xemaxka\Ae aa \>e«v^ ^\«fcXL ^<5j&- 



NATURAL HISTOBT OF THE DOG. 73 

troyer of serpents — ayoiding their bite, and with a rapid spring 
seizing the reptile by the back of the head, and crashing it in a 
instant. K an eel be shown to one of these do^, he will act 
in the same manner as if it were a serpent, ana will speedily 
derootch it. I have only seen one of these dogs, and saw 
nouiing about it to rec(Hnmend it, except as being somewhat 
rare in Britain. 



THE MEXICAN PBAIBIE DOG. 

This is about the smallest of the canine family. In aspect he 
resembles a minute English terrier, but his head is somewhat 
diroroportioned to his general bulk. I have been told that these 
amtinft^ia burrow in the prairies of their native land, like mar- 
mots ; I am not, however, satisfied as to the fact, and would, 
at all events, observe that these dogs are on no account to be 
confounded with the little animals so common in North Ame- 
rica, and known (of course erroneously, as these latter animals 
do not belong to the dog tribe at all), under the same name. 
There are some specimens of this curioas breed of dog in Dub- 
lin ; amongst which I may mention one in possession of Mr. 
Desmond, of Drumcondra Hill. 



.THE TURNSPIT. 

This dog, although evidentlya mongrel, is nearer to the ter- 
riers than anything else, and on this account I describe him among 
them. He is a small, long'^backed, cross-made dog, with the 
fore 1^ bent, first inwards and then outwards ; he is frequently 
pied, or glaucous-coloared, like the Great Danish do^, and the 
narlequin terrier, next to be described. Formerly his use was 
to tarn a wheel, on which depended the spit which roasted the 
meat in the kitchen. Fortunately for humanity, mechanical 
contrivances have, in these countries at least, superseded the 
necessity of thus torturing a poor dog ; and accordingly the 
Turnspit, his occupation being gone, is himself rapidly passing 
into oblivion. I have seen dogs in Scotland resemblm^ the 
Turnspit, called ** bowsy terriers," that were remarkable for 
their combative powers ; I conceived them to be a cross be- 
tween the old Turnspit and the low-legged Scotch terri.ee. 



74 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 



THE HARLEQUIN TERRIER. 

Whatever be the origin of this little dog, it is now a rec<^- 
nized yariety ; and from its extreme beauty> both of form and 
colour, combined with all such qualities as terriers should po6- 
sess> deyeloped in the highest degree of |)erfection, it is richly 
deserving of bein^ cultivated. In form, it is, as it were, a per- 
fect English terrier ; in colour, it is bluish slate-colour, marked 
with darker blotches and patches, and often with tan about the 
legs and muzzle. It is one of the most determined of it« race, 
and is surpassed by none in the skill and activity with which it 
pursues and catches its game, and the resolution with which it 
battles with and destroys it : I have seen lately a beautiful pair 
and some puppies, in possession of Mr. Nolan, of Bachelor's- 
walk, Dublin ; and the Rev. Mr. Wilcocks, of Palmerstown, 
has also long been famous for this breed of dogs ; I believe 
Mr. Wilcocks was the first to introduce them into this country, 
but whence they originally came, I know not. 

In former times, a brace of terriers used to accompany every 
pack of foxhounds, for the sake of unkennelling Reynard, in the 
event of his taking to earth. This attendance has long been 
discontinued, as being no longer necessary, the fox being now 
run into too rapidly to admit of his giving the gallant terriers 
this trouble; some recent writers do not appear aware of this 
circumstance, but gravely furnish us with long extracts from 
Daniel, &c., relative to this now obsolete practice. 



CHAPTER Vra. 

THE NEWFOUNDLAND GROUP, OR WOLF DOGS. 

I AM compelled thus arbitrarily to ^ve, perhaps, an undeserved 
name to the present group, but it is the only one by means of 
which I can accurately indicate the family of dogs to which I 
refer. The individuals of which this group is composed, bear, 
sIJ oftbem, a greater or less resemblance to the wolf, in erect 



,^1, and bosbj tajle. 
The Newfoondl&nd dc^ ia taUy enStled to be placed at the 
Iiead of the gmnp ; from his being better known than the others, 
firom his greater beauty, his sagacity, nobility of nature and 
dispotition, his utility to mankind, and the high degree of es- 
timation in which he is held in every part of the world where 
he is known. 

Those who have grouped these di^ with the Spaniels, are 
in error, for tbey possess none of the characterisdcs of that 



The tme breed of Newfoundland is a dog of moderate eUt- 
tore, seldom exceeding twenty-sis or twenty-seven inches in 
height i long-bodied, broad ohesl«d, ebaggj coat, pointed, volf- 




ish mnzzle, ears small, and inclined to be semi-erect; colonr 
usually black, with a shade of brown through it, and occanon- 
allj some while. There is another breed of dog peculiar to 
Newfoundland ; short-coaled, and sharp-nosed — an excellent 
water dog, by Bome mistaken for fhe ttvw'S^irtwa^aKA.^st'*^- 



76 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 

The large dogs, usually known as Newfoundlands in this 
country, are evidently the result of a cross with the mastiff. 
They are a fine showy animal, but less sagacious, less active, 
and more apt to display irregularity of temper than the origi- 
nal breed ; these often attain the height of thirty inches.* 

In his native country, the Newfoundland dog meets with 
worse than indifferent treatment ; during winter, he is ill-fed, 
and most severely worked ; his employment consisting of draw- 
ing heavy loads of timber — an employment so severe, that many 
dogs are worn out, and perish from exhaustion, before winter 
is over. When summer approaches, and the occupation of the 
natives changes to fishing, the poor dogs are turned adriil, to 
shift for themselves. 

The origin of this dog is questionable, but I am disposed to 
trace him to a large European variety, still in use among the 
Norwegians, for the chase of the bear and wolf. It is now well 
known that the original discovery of Newfoundland is to be 
attributed to the Norwegians, who, before the year 1000, sailed 
from Greenland on a voyage of discovery, and that the same 
people discovered North America some time between the tenth 
and eleventh centuries. — Lond, Geogr. Jour, vol. viii. At the 
same time> I have no wish to deny that this breed of dogs may 
have been sinoe modified, by crossing with the Esquimaux and 
Labrador varieties. 

The Newfoundland dog has long been famed for his aquatic 
powers, and many human lives have, from time to time, been 
saved by him. It is not long since ten of the true breed were 
imported into Paris, and employed in watchins the banks of the 
Seme — experienced trainers being daily employed in teaching 
them to draw, from the water, stuffed figures of men and chil- 
dren ; handsome kennels have been erected for them on the 
bridges, and they have already proved their utility, in saving a 
number of poor perishing human creatures from a watery 
death. I recollect a noble dog of this breed, the property of Pro- 
fessor Dunbar, of Edinburgh, which was accustomed to go out 
with the young people, in the capacity of a protector, and a 
most efficient one he proved himself, suffering neither man nor 
brute to approach his charge. This dog, also, was accustomed 
to apply to the bell at his master's gate, when it happened to be 
shut, and he desired admittance. The true Newfoundland 
dog has been frequently used as a retriever, and is remarkable 
for his fearless manner of penetrating the thickest cover. I 

* Thefe large dogs are rapidly becoming the peculiar breed of Newfoundland, and 
dog8 oftbia Bort are gladly imported^ wkereaa out lSemfouTidla.T)Ld fticads have now little 
or nothiagbttt curt to otter in return. 



shall close my account of the Newfoundland, with Ibe follow- 
e lines from Lord Byron's beautiful epitaph on his favourite 



IDS unet 
"Boatr 



Wko labogn, flghii, Ut«, bn 

eed IB about twenty-si 



This is a much larger animal than the preceding, standing 
from twenty-eight to thirty inches in height; his muzzle is 
shorter and more truncated, the upper lip more pendulous, the 




coat coarser, and the whole dog presenting far more marks of 
great strength than the Newfoundland. 

The following are the measurements of a dog of this breed, 
^Ten in " Knight's Weekly Volume ■'■ — ^"'\.diSi.\'CT,^,-'^^s^i' 
mg the t&il, sii feet three 'inches ■, \ie\^\ aX. ft« *nj\Mi.^, "««•;» 
feet six inches ; length of head from otcv^M-s. \» -^a-aA i«.-o!«« 



78 NATURAL HISTORY OF THB DOG. 

eleven inches ; circumference of chest, three feet one inch. In 
Labrador^ these large dogs are used in drawing sledges loaded 
with wood, and are of great service to the settlers." 

The finest specimen of the Labrador dog that I have ever 
seen, is RoUo, property of Lady Bellew, lady of Sir Patrick 
Bellew, of Barmeath, whose baronetcy is the oldest in Lreland. 
Rollo stands above twenty-nine inches in he^ht at the shoul- 
der. As we have given a faithful portrait oi him, description 
is unnecessary. 



THE LABRADOR SPANIEL, OR LESSER LABRADOR DOG. 

This dog presents an appearance intermediate between the 
Newfoundland dog and the Land Spaniel ; he is generally called 
by the above name, but whether or not he is fully entitled to it, 
is in my judgment at least questionable. These dogs are re- 
markable for their diving powers. I saw one some years ago 
with an officer, who was quartered at Portobello Barracl^, 
Dublin, which dived repeatedly to the bottom of the canal, be- 
tween the locksj when full of water, and fetched up such stones, 
&c., as were thrown in. I subjoin the following anecdote^ on the 
authority of Saunders*s News-letter, in which paper it appeared, 
of date September 21, 1846. I can only observe, that u strictly 
true, it places the sagacity and gratitude of this dog in a most 
interesting light : — 

<* Peeler, the dog of the Police. — ^During the recent in- 
vestigation relative to the manner in which the policeman came 
by his death at Kingstown, a little active and inquisitive dog, of 
the Labrador breed, was seen from time to time during each day 
running in and out of the room as if he took a personal interest 
in the inquiry. The dog was admired, and a gentleman in the 
police establishment was asked to whom it belonged. ' Oh,' said 
he * don't you know him ? we thought every one knew Peeler, 
the dog of the police.' The gentleman then proceeded to give 
the interrogator the history of this singular dog. It appeared 
from the story, that a few years ago poor little Peeler tempted 
the canine appetite of a Mount St. Bernard, or Newfoundland 
dog, and was m peril of being swallowed up by him for a lun- 
cheon, when a policeman interposed, and with a blow of his 
baton, levelled tne assailant, and rescued the assailed. From 
that time * Peeler' has united his fortunes with those of the 
police; wherever they go, he follows; whether pacing with 
measured tread the tedious 'beat,* or eii^^^\xim<&^iii«c^tic 
datjr of arresting a disturber of tlie pu\>\k ipeafc^. lELft Sa ^ ^f#^- 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 79 

constituted general-superintendent of the police, visiting station 
after station, and after he has made his observations in one dis- 
trict, wending his way to the next. He is frequently seen 
to enter a third class carriage at the Kingstown Railway, ^et out 
at Black Rock, visit the police station there, continue his tour 
of inspection to Booterstown, reach there in time for the train 
as be^re, and go on to Dublin to take a peep at the 'metro- 
politans ;' and having satisfied himself that ' all is right,' re- 
turn by an early evening train to Kingstown. He sometimes 
takes a dislike to an individual, and shuns him as anxiously as 
he wags his tail at the approach, and frisks about the feet of, 
another for whom he has a regard. There is one man in the 
force for whom he has this antipathy ; and a day or two a^o, 
seeing him in * the train,* he leu the carriage, and waited for 
the next, preferring a delay of half an hour, to such company ; 
and when the bell rang, with the eagerness with which protracted 
joy is sought, he ran to his accustomed seat in < the third class.* 
His partiality for the police is extraordinary ; wherever he sees 
a man in the ^arb of a constable, he expresses his pleasure by 
walking near nim, rubbing against and dancing about him ; nor 
does he forget him in death, for he was at his post in the fune- 
ral of Daly, the policeman who was killed in Kingstown. He 
is able to recognize a few in plain clothes, but they must have 
been old friends of his. Wherever he goes, he gets a crust, a 
piece of meat, a pat on the head, or a rub down upon his glossy 
back, from the hand of a policeman ; and he is as well known 
amongst the body as any man in it. We have heard of the dog 
of Montargis, the soldier's dog, the blind beggar's dog, and the 
dog of the monks of St. Bernard, and been delighted by stories 
of their fidelity and sagacity, but none are more interesting 
than * Peeler the dog of me Police,' * whose heart, enlarged with 
gratitude to one, grows bountiful to all.' " 



THE ITALIAH OB PTRENEAN WOLF-DOG, 

Called, also, the Oalabrian, and shepherd's - dog of the 
Abruzzo. These dogs stand about twenty -nine or thirty 
inches in height at the shoulder, are usually of a white co- 
lour, with one or two patches of a buff or tan colour on the 
head or sides ; the ears are not hairy, and are half erect ; 
when pendent, you may suspect a cross of Newfoundland; the 
tail is very bushy, and is carried, in a curl, close over the back ; the 
nose is pointed, and the general aspect of die head wol6iah« Th&^ 
j^re tbe sheep-doga of the Ita\iaa Wi^ ^^^m^ ^^^^^^\sss5^ 



80 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 

they are rather guardians than herd-dogs. The chief occasion 
of their usefulness is in summer, when me wolves are abundant 
on the hills, but are of less value in winter, when the shepherds, 
with their flocks, descend into the plains. 

Doctor Barker, of Cumberland-street, Dublin, had lately a 
verv fine specimen of the Pyrenean wolf-dog, since, however, 
unfortunately, deceased. This dog has been very strangely 
confounded, by Mr. Youatt, with the old Irish wolf-dog.* At 
page 66, under the head of the '' Italian or Pomeranian Wolf- 
dog,*' he says — ** The wolf-dog is no longer a native of Great 
Britain, because his services are not re(][uired there, but he is 
useful in various parts of the Continent, m the protection of the 
sheep from the attacks of the wolf." Mr. xouatt is also in- 
correct in callin<T this the *' Pomeranian'* — ^the true Pomeranian 
beinff, as I shall show, a very difl*erent animal. At pa^e 40, 
speaking of the Irish wolf-dog, Mr. Youatt agam contoimds 
him with the dog at present under consideration. I shall have 
to advert to more mistakes Mr. Youatt has made relative to the 
varieties of dog ; and I am sorry to be compelled to do so, his 
volume being so valuable for its physiological and pathological 
details. 



THE POMERANIAN DOG, 

By some writers confounded with the last described, is a 
small dog, of usually a white colour. In stature, it is under 
twenty inches at the shoulder ; its ears are perfectly erect, 
like those of a fox, and the tail is not fringed like that of the 
Pyrenean dog, but bushed all round, Ukc that of the fox. This 
is often called the ** fox-dog," from its resemblance to that 
animal. 

There is a small Chinese variety of dog, so closely resembling 
the Pomeranian (except in colour, being usually yellow or 
black), that they cannot be distinguished from one another. 
I knew an officer in Edinburgh, about ten or twelve years ago, 
who had in his possession two of these Chinese doss, one of 
which was remarkable for his combative powers, frequently 
conquering dogs of treble his own size and force.* 



* Tbeie are the dogs used as food by the natives. There are regular dog-butchers in 

most of the Chinese towns, and dog's flesh, especially roasted, is held in high esteem. It 

/# not Jong 0iiioe, tb»t not only w^ *' roasted dog" regarded as the yery quintessence of 

good liringf but that, like " lively turtle" amons u«, \U ptom\«o^ vfii^KwcvasA «& the 

Atwnf wa0 r^pilurly aimoimoed as an aUractlou to «a.e VovVleA swaV%. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 81 



THE HABE INDIAN DOG. 



First described by Doctor Richardson, and found by that 
eminent naturalist on the Mackenzie River. It is of small 
size, and slenderly made, with broad, erect ears, sharp at the 
tips ; the tail is pendent, with a slight curve upwards, near the 
tip. These resemble the preceding dog in size, and somewhat in 
appearance, and their resemblance to the fox is also consider- 
able. One which Dr. Richardson had in his possession, and 
which was accustomed to follow his sledge, was killed and eaten 
by one of his Indian guides, who stated that he mifitook it for a 
fox. The feet of this dog are large, spread, and thickly clothed 
with fur, inconsequence of which he can run upon the snow 
with rapidity and ease, without sinking. In their native coun- 
try, these dogs never bark ; in confinement they do. 



THE *' HAILED DOG. 

It would be, perhaps, somewhat negligent, on my part, were I not 
to describe, in this place, a very curious-looking dog, apparently 
belonging to the Esquimaux, or Greenland breed, lately exhibited 
in London, and since figured and described in the The Pictorial 
Times. This dog was completely clothed in plated armour, 
composed of some kind of horny substance, the result, I imagine, 
of a depraved growth of the hair. I did not see this dog myself, 
or perhaps I might be able to speak more decidedly as to the 
real nature of his very singular clothing : perhaps it was the re- 
sult of a disease analogous to that terrible one occasionally pre- 
sented in human creatures, and known as "Plique Polonaise'* 
(Polish plait). Of course it is unnecessary for me to remark, 
that this appearance is merely accidental, and that no known 
variety of dog possesses habitually such a covering. 



THE ESQUXMAUX DOG. 

About the size of a large Newfoundland ; hair long, straight, 
and coarse •; tail bushy, curling over the back ; ears erect and 
pointed — in general aspect he closely resembles the wolf. This 
IS a remarkably good-tempered and intelligent animal : in his 
native country, Ineed scarcely inform my readers that he an- 
swers the purposes of a horse, being employed in draught. They 
are active, swift, and endurms. 



82 NATURAL HI8T0BY OF THE DOG. 



THE SIBERIAN DOG 

Is large, wolfisb, and powerful. The ears are rounded at the 
tips, like those of a bear ; the colour is usually greyish, and the 
tail resembles a fox's brush. 



THE KAMTSCHATKA BOO 

Is like the preceding, but smaller, and the tips of the ears drop. 
These dogs are remarkable for instinctively returning to their 
master at the period when they are annually required for the 
sledge. They are generally badly used by their unfeeling 
masters, and appear conscious of it, and anxious for vengeance, 
not unfrequently purposely overturning the sledge. 



THE ICELAND DOG. 

About the size of the Eamtschatkan, but coated and coloured 
like the Esquimaux. It is said by Colonel H. Smith to have 
been brought to Iceland by the Norwegians, and he supposes it 
to have b^n originally obtained from the Skrelings, or Esqui- 
maux, by the adventurers who first visited Greenland. 



THE GREENLAND DOG. 

This is a variety of the Esquimaux, but is smaller. Its co- 
lours are usually grey and wnite. It is very hardy, and en- 
during, and five of these dogs will draw a he&vily-laden sledge, 
at a rapid rate. 



THE LAPLAND DOG 

Is thus described by Clarke [" Scandinavia," vol. i. page 
432] : — ** We had a valuable companion in a dog belonging to 
one of the boatmen. It was of the true Lapland breed, and in 
all respects similar to a wolf, excepting the tail, which was bushy 
and curled, like those of the Pomeranian race. This dog» 
swimming after the boat, if his master merely waved his hand, 
would croaa ibe lake as often as he pleased, carrying half his 
bodjr, and the wholQ of his bead wad taSV oxjA. oi m% Ts^iwet, 



Wherever he landed, he scoured all the long grass by the aide 
of the lake, in ee&rch of wild fowl, and came beck to us, bring- 
ing wild dacks in his mouth to the boat, and then, having de- 
livered his prey to his master, he would instantly set off ^sin 
in search of more." 



confin^ to Scotland, 




stands about twenty-one inches in heisht at the shoulder j is 
very gracefuUj shaped ; muzzle pointea; ears half erect; coat 
long, but Hoe and silky ; tail and hams fringed with hair ; co- 
lour usually black and tan, or sandj yellow. 

This anmial is remarkable for his sagacity ; and his disposi- 
tion to tend sheep appears to be inherent and hereditary. The 
lat« lamented Hogg, oetter known as the " Ettrick Shepherd," 
bad a dog of this breed, named Sirrah, to whom, from his ex- 
traordinary intelligence, one would almost be disposed to allow 
the possession of reason. Mr. Hogg has immoitalized his fa- 
Tonnte j and, perhs^ the following anecdote may not prove 
ouiatereatjag to the reader: — '■^- ■ 

On one night, a Urge fioct ot XWoa "i!QaS.-w«ts. -oS&si *»J 



84 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 

shepherd's charge, startled at something, scampered away in 
three different directions across the hills, despite his effi>rt8 to 
keep them together. "Sirrah," said the shepherd, *• they're 
awa !" 

It was too dark for dog and master to see each other at any 
distance apart ; but *' Sirrah" understood him, and set off after 
the fugitives. The night passed on, and Hogg and his assis- 
tant traversed every neighbouring hill in anxious but fruitless 
search, but could hear nothing of either lambs or dog ; and he 
was returning to his master with the doleful intelligence that 
his charge were lost. " On our way home, however," says he, 
''we discovered a lot of lambs at the bottom of a deep ravine, 
called the 'Flesh Cleuch,' and the indefatigable Sirrah stand- 
ing in front of them, looking round for some relief, but still 
true to his charge." 

THE shepherd's DOG OF ENGLAND 

Is larger and stronger than the preceding, and has much of 
the appearance of a cross with the great rough water-dos. It 
is coarser in the muzzle and in coat, and is destitute of tail. In 
sagacity, however, I believe it is fully equal to its more nor- 
thern relative. 



THE shepherd's DOG OF FRANCE. 

This dog is not to be confounded with the matin. He re- 
sembles in form, size, and disposition, the common sheep-dog 
of England, and, like that animal, usually possesses little or no 
tail. Mr. Whyte Baker has favoured me with the following 
interesting notice of this dog: — "In France where, from the 
absence of fences, the dogs are placed in care of the various 
flocks, it is usual for these animals, at the bidding of their mas- 
ter, to keep ranging round their charge, from flodk to flock, till 
he calls them on again. In one case mis was forgotten, and the 
faithful animal continued his rounds till he died of the fatigue ! 
A parallel case amoi^ animals to the celebrated one among the 
human kind, of the French admiral's son in the ship ' Orient,' 
at the Battle of the Nile — the theme of Mrs. Heman's beauti- 
ful song, * Casabianca.' " 

THE drover's dog 

I^ larger than the eoUey, and seema to \iave wgit\3i\i^ ^csi& ^ 
'osawim the iurcher. He is as sagacious as tke ^«^^«t^^ ^^%, 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 85 

but more courageous ; and will pin and pull down a bullock in 
a moment^ if directed to do so by his master. 



THE CUB-DOO 

Is the colley mongrelized. He is a bully and a coward> and 
is very fond of running after the heels of a horse ; but, with all 
his faults, is the best watch-dog in existence, and is, on that 
account, valuable to the poor cottager, of whose humble dwell- 
ing he is ever a faithful guardian. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE SPANIELS. 

The beautiful race at which we are now arrived, is one of es- 
pecial celebrity ; and is peculiarly endeared to us from the 
many intellectual and moral qualities by which it is character- 
ized, and from it^i sagacity and affection. As the shepherd's 
dog is the faithful friend of those in the humbler walks of life, 
so are the Spaniels to *' chiefs and ladies bright" — to the gentler 
sex, par excellence^ and to those high in '* honour and in place." 
Examples of the good qualities of these dogs are everywhere no- 
torious. As the shepherd's dog represents the *• utile," so may 
these represent the "dulce." The former, the rough and ho- 
n^ comrade of the rough and honest peasant — ^the latter, the 
associate of luxurious courtiers, and of powerful princes ; but 
still, thoueh moving amidst tinsel and falsehood, never losing 
the primitive honesty and purity of intention which character- 
izes its disposition. 

Spaniels are of several sub-varieties, amongst which I may 
enumerate 

THE SETTER, OB LAND-SPANIEL. 

This Spaniel was first broken in to set i^«it5\ds|^^ «sA <5j^JsiK!t 
feathered game, as an assistant to \kfe ivel, Vj \ixi^«^^^'^^'^ 



B6 NATURAL HISTORY OF TBE DOG. 

of Northumberland, a. d. 1335 ; and Mr. Daniel, in ** Rural 
Sports," ^ves a copy of a document, dated 1685, in which a 
yeoman bmds himself, for ten shillings, to teach a Spaniel to 
set partridges and pheasants. That the setter and the old 
origmal Land-spaniel are identical, there can, therefore, be no 
doubt. 

There are several varieties of setter. The ordinary old Eng- 
lish Setter, with rather a square head and heavy chops, looking 
as if he had a dash of Spanish pointer in him ; colour usually 
liver and white. The Irish Setter, narrower in the head, finer 
in the muzzle, usually of a dun or yellow colour. This is a 
dog in very high esteem ; no trace of the pointer is seen in 
him. These are the genuine, unmixed descendants of the ori- 
ginal Land-spaniel ; and so highly valued are they, that a hun- 
dred guineas is by no means an unusual price for a single dog. 
A very superior breed of these dogs, belonging to Sir John 
Blunden, Bart., of Castle Blunden, in the County Kilkenny, 
is described and figured in a work published some time ago, by 
Jennings, London. There was also a celebrated breed of these 
do^s — ^now, I believe, extinct — ^kept by that ancient and noble 
Lnsh family, the O'Oonors of Oftaly : those belonging to the 
late Maurice O'Conor were highly renowned, and the breed 
is described by his grandson as yet remaining. 

The Scotch Setter stands high on his legs ; is usually black 
and tan in colour ; has the apex of the skull very prominent; 
the hair long and silky ; the tail well fringed and fan-like ; and 
is altogether a very beautiful dog. He is somewhat quarrel- 
some, nowever, and of a forgetful disposition ; whence he is not 
only hard to break, but, in general, requires a repetition of the 
lesson at the commencement of each season. 

The black setter is a scarce dog; very beautiful and very 
stanch. I saw lately a superb brace in Dublin, the property 
of Mr. Maziere. 

The Setter is by some sportsmen preferred to the pointer, and 
where water is to be got at occasionally, during a day's shoot- 
ing, there can be no doubt of his superiority. He cannot., how- 
ever, work without a drink so long as the pointer can, although 
if he can obtain a sufficient supply, he can work still longer than 
that dog. In disposition, the Setter is more affectionate and 
more attached to his master, individually, than the pointer is. 
He requires more training than the latter dog ; but that train- 
ing must be of a very mild and gentle description, lest the dog 
be blinked or spirit-broken. 



i 



d higit ; ape^ of ttie bead very pro- 




minent, and liunished with a toft or tq>-knot of fanir -, ears very 



theoody, in close, cnsp curls ; the (oil not fringed, but covered 
whli dose curls to tho point. The smallest speck of white may 
be regarded as indicative of foul breeding. 

liere is also a black Water-spaniel. I saw several in Edin- 
boreh, but I do not And them common anywhere else. Some 
(and Mr. Touatt amonsst others) describe two varieties of Wa- 
ter-^MUiiel — a large aca a small ; but the fact ia, that we mi^bt 
describe tieo dozen varieties — the variationB depending on size 
and colour onlj-, the results of whims or &ncies on the part of 
teeeders, who, resorting to crosses, have produced so many aber- 
rationa from the pore and original breed, which is that I have 
jast described. 

The Water-spaniel, however, is mnch improved in beauty by 
intenniztnrewith the land variety. h.ferouAcf'&^NLsx&'tffii&sJ^ 
"Dock," which wo have fignred, w m -^oMiBiWssa «i1.>fe.'>*»*s^ 



88 NATURAL HI8T0AY OF THE IKMS. 

neil, the well-known and justly-esteemed musical instrument 
maker^ Capel-street^ in this city, and is one of the most beauti- 
ful and afifectionate creatures I have ever seen. Macneil reflects 
credit on '' Irish manufacture ;" but I presume that he and his 
establishment are too well known to require further eulogy. 
Many prefer a medium, or even small-sized Water-spaniel, and 
I confess that I am of this number, as I conceive them better 
suited to work, and more active as retrievers. Some, on the other 
hand, conceive that small size is incompatible with strength ; 
these accordingly take pains to breed large dogs, and some 
have even resorted to a cross with the Newfoundland to effect 
this object ; a cross is, however, unnecessary — all that is re- 
quisite being care in the selection of such whelps as are to be 
reared, and judicious pairing. In proof of this assertion, I may 
mention the dogs of Justin Macarthy, Esq., of this city, of the 
highest possible blood, and at the same tune little inferior to 
mastiffs in size and strength. The Water-spaniel, is, I think, 
the most docile and affectionate of the canine race, and the best 
dog that such as require him as a companion could possibly 
keep. He can be trained to do anythmg but speak — an ac- 
complishment itself, indeed, that was, to a limited extent, pos- 
sessed some years ago by a spaniel in Germany (Leibnitz Opera, 
1768). 

The Water-spaniel is of considerable antiquity, having been 
known to the Romans, as we find him figged on many of their 
monuments. Colonel H. Smith regards it as identical with the 
" Canis Tuscus," praised by Nemesian. 

Some years ago this dog was in great repute in Dublin. In 
those days, duck-hunting was a favourite amusement ; it used 
to be practised in the " brackish canal," near the north wall, 
and the brown Water-spaniel was found superior to all other 
dogs at this sport ; further, he was «q/jf-mouthed, and did not 
injure the duck when he succeeded in capturing her, conse- 
quently, the same unfortimate bird answered for a second hunt. 
Among many other improvements that have characterized the 
present generation, I may observe that this inhuman sport is no 
longer permitted. 

THE COCKEB 

Is in appearance a diminutive land-spaniel, but with a shorter 

muzzle, a more rounded head, and longer ears. He is a lively, 

amusing little dog, and a great favourite with the fair sex. The 

tise of the Cocker is to spring woodcoek& and pheasants in 

copses and thickets which larger dogs caimoX. cvx\«t. 



Is the same with the cocker, but of somewhat larger size and 
hoavier form. lie is less lively in his moTementa, takes mat- 
ters more coolly, and can, consequently, better stand a hard 
day's work. 



Blenheim Castle, near Woodstock, OxfoTdahire, formerly 
the reudence of King Ethelred, and unce that, of Henry 11., as 
also the birth-place of several princes of tiie royalline of Eng- 
land ; Bubsequeutly the prison of Queen Elizabetii, during a 
portion of Queen Mary's reign ; and was afterwards granted by 
Queen Anne to John Duke of Marlborough, for obtaining il- 
lustrious victories over the French and Bavarians, at the vil- 



iBge of Blenheim, in Suabia, a. n. 1704. In this Huperb 
mansion has been preserved, for the last century and a-half, the 
small red and white spaniel or comforter, the " Pyrame" of 
Buffon — the Blenheim Spaniel of ibe present day. 



Is distinguished by the diortnesaofhismuzzte — the round and 
bullet-like shape or his head — the prominence of his eye — the 




len^ of his ears, and his colour, ^\i\<iV m\»*, Vifc \Ja.fit. ^sis. 
tan. Tbeoe were the favourite com^vwa lA ■?i^t'2t«£«t. 



90 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOC. 

n.» and the breed has since been carefully preserved by the 
Duke of Norfolk. Mr. Youatt speaks of this breed, but oddly- 
enough describes it as the result of a cross with the terrier, a 
dog m)m which this breed differs far more in form than does 
the common cocker. The present Duke possesses two varieties 
of the King Charles breed, one black and tan, and of a middling 
sise, like the ordinary field cocker, and it is, perhaps, these to 
which Mr. Youatt alludes, and the other bre^ of very diminu- 
tive size, with extremely long ears, and sUky coat ; these latter 
sometimes occur black and white ; they are kept at Arundel 
Castle, Sussex, the ancient seat of the Howard family. Thej 
are admitted to the apartment in which the Duke dines ; and his 
grace has been known to select the first cuts for them off the 
joints of which he himself was partakii^. They are introduced 
into nearly all the family pictures. £ is also on record, that 
James II. was particularly attached to these Spaniels, so that 
th^ are justly entitled to their appellation of "royal race." 

Id. London, where these two dogs are bred with great care, 
and to the highest degree of perfection, the Blenheim is fre- 
quently crossed with the Charles, so that the variety of colour 
on which the difference of nomenclature depends, often appears 
in the same litter ; the black and tan being denominated *^ ning 
Charles," and the red and white *• Blenheim." 

Several ** Spaniel Clubs" have been formed with a view to 
promote the careful breeding of these dogs, and of some of 
these His Royal Highness Prmce Albert is the patron, both 
her Majesty and the Prince being enthusiastic adnurers. of these 
beautiKil little creatures. His Royal Highness has, at no spar- 
ingoutlay, erected a superb kennel for them at Windsor. 

The members of these Spaniel Clubs subscribe a small sum 
each, and with the amount contributed a handsome collar of 
silver, with gold entablature is purchased ; a particular day is 
then named, and judges are . appointed, when each member 
brings to the club-room a dog of his own rearing, and that dog 
adjudged to possess the greatest number of good points, attains 
the collar as a prize. Mr. Nolan, of Bachelor's-walk, in this 
city, has one of these collars, and his prize dog ** Blouse," of 
which we have given a figure, is admitted by all judges to be 
far superior to anything of the kind that has ever been seen in 
any part of the British dominions, or elsewhere. Mr. Nolan 
has refused most extraordinary offers for this dog, which he 
keeps as a sire. No price will tempt him to ^art with his 
/kvourJte, whom, however, I feel convinced he will have great 
pleasure in showing to any adnurer ot\Vi^\>Y^^ ^^ xsva,^ call 
upon huDs 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE BOO. 91 

King Charles and Blenheim Spaniels have been known in 
London, to fetch the price of from 150 to 200 guineas! I have 
already detailed the points on which excellence depends. 

The keeper of a gaming house in Dublin had lately a little 
black and tan Spaniel of this breed, for which he refused the 
Slim of eighty guineas ; within a fortnight from his refusal, the 
animal was run over by a carriage, and killed upon the spot. 

Both the Blenheim and King Charles breeds are remarkably 
affectionate to their owners ; 3iey are likewise yery watchful, 
and in other respects extremely sagacious. I recollect reading 
an account of one which sayed his sleeping master's life, by 
biting his finger, and thus awakening him in time to perceiye 
that a stone summer temple in which he had been readmg, was 
tottering, and about to fall upon him : catching the little dog 
in his arms, he rushed hastily into the open air, which he had 
no sooner reached, than the temple was a mass of ruins. 

Both these dogs haye also been found perfectly fit for service 
in the field, and if the pets were occasionally permitted to do 
duty there, the race would be greatly improyed in health and 
beauty, and considerably enhanced in yalue. 



THE WATER-DOG. 
THB 6RSAT BOUGH WATEB-DOO. 

This is a dog of considerable size, being about the height of a 
stout setter, but much more powerfully built. His coat is long 
and curled ; the head is large and round ; the frontal sinuses 
ample ; ears long, and well furnished with hair ; legs rather 
short; colour usually brown and white, or black and white; 
he possesses great courage and sagacity ; he is an excellent 
water-dog, and well adapted to the duties of a retrieyer ; he, 
however, requires considerable training to induce him to be 
tender of his game, as he is apt to drive in his teeth, and con- 
sequently mangle his bird. 

This dog is not to be confounded with the poodle of either 
France or Grermany ; he is a more original, and a very dif- 
ferent do^. 

I recollect a singularly large dog of this breed, about ten 
years ago, in possession of Mr. Grierson, of N. Hanover-street, 
Edinburgh, near the foot of the Mound, which was possessed d 
unusual mtelligence. Amongst other eccentricities, this dog 
followed the profession of m.emdieasie.'^, «sA '(^^g:^Siais\:^ ^ssJ^is^^j^ 
the charity of the passers-by. On T^<i«CTYsy^ ^>MSiS5^fso5s^^^^«!la» 



92 NATURAL HISTORY OF TH£ DOG. 

habit was, if hungry, to proceed at once to the shop of Mr. 
Nelson, at the corner of Kose-street, and purchase a biscuit ; 
but it sometimes happened that he put by his halfpence untU 
the calls of appetite returned, when he would ^o to his reposi- 
tory, take the money to the baker's, and make his purchase. A 
servant of Mr. Grierson's accidentally came upon this sagacious 
and provident animal's hoarding place on one occasion, where 
were found about five-pence halfpenny in halfpence. The dog 
chanced to enter at the moment of the discovery, and with a 
growl of displeasure he rushed to the spot, and snatching up 
his wealth, proceeded at full speed to the shop, and dashed the 
money on the counter, barking vehemently at the same time, 
probably deeming it safer to turn it into bread at once, than 
risk being robbed by keeping it. This dog was stuffed at his 
death, and is preserved in the Ed. Mus. of Nat. History. 



THE POODLE. 

The Poodle resembles the great water-dog in general appear- 
ance, but may be very easily distinguished from nim by the cir- 
cumstance of his being furnished with wool instead of hair. The 
Poodle is an excellent water-dog, but is not so hardv, and con- 
sequently not capable of remaining in the water so long as the 
preceding variety ; he is, however, more active, more easilj 
trained, and far more tender-mouthed. Mr. Jesse, in his 
'* Gleanings," mentions a Poodle belonging to a friend of his, 
for whom correction was found necessary, he being sometimes 
rather unruly, the gentleman bought a whip, with which he 
corrected him once or twice when out walking ; on his return 
he left the whip on the hall-table, and in the morning it was 
missing ; having been found concealed in an out-buildmg, and, 
as before, used when occasion required, in correcting the dog, 
it was once more missed ; but on the dog, who was suspected 
of having stolen it, being watched, he was seen to take it from 
the hall-table, in order to hide it as before. 

In a most amusing paper, entitled ** Sketches of Burschen 
Life," published in that excellent periodical. The Dublin 
University Magazine, for July, 1846, is the following laugh- 
able anecdote of a Poodle and a short-sighted Professor : — 

** There was a story, when we were in Heidelberg, going 

about of a certain student who had a remarkable fine white 

JPoodle ; the intelligence and sagacity of the animal were un- 

conunon, and as he used daily to accomp^iiY ^^ Tsvafi^^T Xx^ 

^e lecture-room of a professor, wlio was not Ner^ T^caaa^^aXJia 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 93 

for the distinctness of his vision, he would regularly take his 
seat upon the bench beside his master, and peer into his book, 
as if he understood every word of it. 

** One wet mominff, the lecture-room, never, at any time> 
remarkable for its fmness, was deserted, save by the student 
who owned the Poodle. The dog, however, had somehow 
hi^pened to remain at home. 

** * dentlemen,* said the short-sighted professor, as he com- 
menced his lecture, * I am sorry to notice, that the very atten- 
tive student in the white coat, whose industry I have not failed 
to observe^ is^ contrary to his usual custom, absent to-day !' " 



THE LITTLE BARBET 

Is a diminutive poodle, the head being covered with straight 
and silky hair — ^the rest of the body havmg a curly and woolly 
coat. 

THE LION DOO 

Has a mane like a lion, the remainder of the body having close 
hair ; supposed to have sprung from a cross between the small 
barbet and naked Turk ; it is a very rare variety, and use- 
less. 



CHAPTER X. 



The third great group of domestic dogs may be best represent- 
ed by the mastifi^ of which dogs, indeed, it is exclusively com- 
posed. This group and the first, or that represented by the 
greyhounds, present the strongest marks of originality. 



THE MASTIFFS. 



The Dog of Thibet. 

The Dog of St. Bernard, or Alpine Mastiff. 

The Spanish, or Cuban Mastiff. 

The Bull-dog. 

The Pug-dog. 

The British Mastiff . 



Placed by Mr. YouaU at the head of the first or greyhound 
group, but in reality the estreme opposite to that group, pre- 




senUngallthemastiffattributestoa degree of perfection ai 

inK>l>no9t to ex^zeradon or caricature. 

The mastiff ofThibet is a dog of vaat size, standing fn»ti 
tiiirtf to thirty-tJiree inches in height at the shoulder, and be- 
ing bulky in proportion. His head is large and broad, and the 
divergence of the parietal boneB is very stronEly marked. His 
lips are very full and pendulous, and the akin fromthe eyebrows 
forms a fold towards the outer edge of the eyes ending in the 
jowl ; the neck is remarkably full, and the chest is ^misbed 
with t, dewlap. The usual colour of this dog is black and tan; 
the coat is large and ragged ; thetul very bnshy, and carried 
up over the back. The ngure of this noble dog, given in Mr. 
louatt'sbook, is very good, and moat f^thfully depicts the ani' 
ma} hia deseed to represent ; and this renders it still more 
sittgular tbal the dog and its descriplioa should be so misplaced 
«s M the bead of the greyhouBd grouiJ. 



THE DOO. 95 

In dJ^MxHion, the Thibet Aob is said to be ven' fierce, but 
nmcli attsdied to his muter. They were origioail; noticed by 
Uarco Polo, who described them a« being " ai Urge as ateea," 
■ description contradicted by some snbBeqnent travellers, bat 
liiice amply conGmied. The probable cause of these discre- 
pHit aoooanta is, that the Thibet mastiff deirenersteg rapidly if 
removed to * milder climate, and several inferior, thoagh simi- 
lar Iveeda, exiit in different portions of the Himalaya cluun of 



Hie maattff of Thibet is well fizored in tJiat interesting work, 
"Gardens and Menaserie ofthe Zoolc^cal Society." Colonel 
Smith moM jnstb' rcKrs to this Aag as the typical mastiff — the 
Caaia Drcanns described of old by Oppian. 



So many conflic^ng accounts of this dc^ have appeared front 
time to time, that it is impossible to trust to the accuracy of 




any of them ; accordingly, I have rejected all, and lamed to 
nature itself— to the existii^ d<^, and the verbal accounts of 
sDch faithwortby persons as n&xe uAiuU'^ ts^sii «!»»&.. 

Jt u not every one whoae ieacn^'itt o" ' 
wagbt with me. He inaBtte&\oH«T ol 



96 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOO. 

dog-fancier — ^to understand the animal's points, and hence give 
a correct description. By some writers, the St. Bernard dog 
is described as a large spaniel I with soft, curly coat, and long, 
fringed ears. My esteemed old friend. Captain Thomas Brown, 
in his very amusing ** Anecdotes of Dogs," actually gives a 
figure of this dog representing him as a large cocker 1 Mr. 
Jesse does not describe the dog's appearance at all, and it 
would not be easy to make out what the figure is intended 
to represent, whether, indeed, a dog, or some nondescript ani- 
mal. Mr. Martin places him with the Newfoundland and 
Calabrian dogs, and, to a certain extent, he is not far astray. 

Colonel H. Smith (Nat. Lib.) — and whose valuable work 
seems to have furnished Mr. Martin with more than the groimd- 
work of his— classes the St. Bernard dog also with the wolf- 
dog group ; but he, at the same time, informs us, that more 
than one description of dog is trained by the monks of the Great 
St. Bernard, for their pious and charitable purposes. One sort 
he describes as being long-coated, and resembling the New- 
foundland, and the other as being short-coated, and resembling 
the Great Dane in colour and hair. 

The animal figured by Colonel Smith — a dog belonging to 
Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, and stated by that gentleman to 
have been brought direct from the Great St. Bernard, by Sir 
Henry Dalrymple, of North Berwick — displays in his appear- 
ance all the characteristics we ndght expect to arise from a 
cross between the short-coated, mighty miastiff of the Alps, and 
the slighter and more hairy wolf-dog of the Pyrenees ; and 
such I believe to have been the cross whence that fine animal 
sprang. 

I have, as I have already stated, been at considerable pains 

to discover the true character and history of this noble breed 

of dogs ; and the result of my inquiries tends to show that the 

dog originally trained to this service, was a large and powerful 

mastiff, short-coated, deep-jo wled, of a yeUow colour, with a 

long, fine tail. L'Ami, who was brought, in 1829, from tiie 

convent on the Great St. Bernard, was of this description. 

He was exhibited, in both London and Liverpool, to many 

thousand people, at the charge of one shilling admission. I 

was favoured by Mr. Clarke, of Holborn, who lithographed 

L'Ami's portrait, and who is himself an ardent fancier of dogs, 

and of this breed in particular, with a full account of the true * 

dogs of St. Bernard, obtained by him from the very best autho- 

rities. A good many years ago a pestilence made its appearance 

amongst the dogs of the convent, and aXV ^ete da^teoyed save 

one single specimen. Under these cire\ims\a»Ge^, \x^^ Tass\^ 

nad no alternative but to cross the breed, ^\dfiV liXve^ ^^^^ 



NATUBAL HI6TOBT OF THE DOG. 97 

ike Spanish or Pyrenean wolf-dog — the most likely cross to 
which thej could haye resorted ; hence arose the race of dogs 
ordinarily known as St. Bernard's. Some of the true race have 
been now restored ; but they are very scarce, and are not to be 
possessed under enormous prices ; in fact, not to be had from the 
eonyent at all ; Mr. Clarke being acquainted with a nobleman 
who offered one hundred guineas for a brace of puppies, with- 
out success. Hence the mistakes arising from spurious dogs, 
supposed to be original, merely because they came from the 
mountain. Mr. Youatt gives a very excellent figure of the 
present most common race of St. Bernard dogs ; but, not- 
withstanding the figure he gives, persists in naming it a spaniel. 
Perhaps the finest of this breed in existence is the dog recently 
kept at Chatsworth. I know not whether it be still Sving. It 
was a dog of amazing stature, of a yellow colour, with a black 
muzzle. There is also one at Elvaston Castle, in Derbyshire, 
for which Lord Harrington gave fifty guineas. In Dublin, 
these dogs used to be common. They were introduced by a 
Frenchman, named Casserane, a butcher in Ormond Market. 
he had male and female, and their whelps were eagerly pur- 
chased at 1i\e guineas each, as soon as weaned. W. Flood, 
Esq.j of Stillorgan, possesses a noble specimen, of which we 
give a figure ; and there was also, until lately, a beautiful spe- 
cimen, named "Donna," in possession of my relative, John 
Bichardson, Esq., of Newington Terrace, Rathmincs. Donna 
was one of the best water-dogs I ever saw. She was gentle ; 
but very wild and playful, and her tremendous size rendered 
her romping caresses anything but agreeable. My relative 
went on one occasion to bathe, accompanied by Donna, who 
watched the progress of unrobing vnth much apparent curi- 
osity. No sooner had her master plunged into the water, how- 
ever, than Donna sprang after him, and, doubtless uneasy for his 
safe^, seized him by the shoulder, and dragged him, in spite 
of all his resistance — and he is both a powerful man and a ca- 
pital swinuner — with more zeal than gentleness, to land ; nor 
could he ever enter the water in Donna's presence. 

Mr. Otley, of Rathmines, possesses a noble dog of this breed, 
of remarkably large size and striking appearance ; and Mr. 
Bryan (late Sheriff Bryan) has a fine dog, which was brought 
some years ago, from the Alps direct. 

THE SPANISH OB CUBAN MASTIFF 

Is not to be confounded — which he, hfewever, has been — ^with 
ibe Spanish or Cuban bloodhound TW&\& ^VAsJ^ ^s^«^\s^.^%. 



96 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOO. 

The Spanish or Cuban Mastiff is a very powerfully built dog, 
of from twenty-six to twenty-eight inches in height, with ex- 
traordinary development of bone and muscle. His head is of 
prodigious size, even apparently too large in proportion to his 
body ; his eyes are placed very far apart ; his upper lip pendu- 
lous, but not so much so as in the preceding dog ; the ear is 
small, and not perfectly pendulous, being erect at the root, but 
the tip falling over ; colour usually tawny or light rufus ; the 
under jaw is also undershot, and I do not think I can give my 
readers a better idea of the dog, than by describing him as a 
gigantic bull-dog, occupying precisely the same position with 
regard to the prodigious mastiff of the Alps, which our own 
British bull-dog does in reference to the English mastiff. The 
Spanish or Cuban Mastiff is a dog of great courage ; in Spain 
he is used in the combats of the amphitheatre, and is conunonly 
known on the continent as the " Spanish bull-dog." The dogs 
procured from Spain or Portugal will be found to answer my pre- 
sent description more fully than such as we may now procure 
from Cuba ; the latter breed having, in many instances, under- 
gone much alteration aod deterioration by crossing with the 
Cuban bloodhound. J. Aylmer, Esq., of 5, Bachelor's Walk, 
Dublin, has the finest of the breed, perhaps, in Britain. He 
is frequently importing new and perfect specimens from Cadiz ; 
for doing which he possesses peculiar facilities. Colonel H. 
Sndth conceives this race to have been identical with the broad- 
mouthed dogs for which Britain was celebrated during the Bo- 
man era ; and certainly as this race answers to ancient descrip- 
tion far better than our common bull-dog, I am disposed ful^ 
to concur with him. 

Some years ago, I saw a remarkably fine specimen of this 
breed, at the Portobello Gardens, which fell since into the pos- 
session of Dr. Gilgeous, of Demerara. There was also a good 
specimen recently presented to our Zoological Society, by Sir 
George Preston, which is, I believe, still in the Society's gar- 
dens. 

THE BULL-DOG. 

The British BuU-dog is, when a good dog, perhaps one of 
the most courageous anin^s in existence. I am obliged to 
qualify my meed of praise, however, as I have myseff seen 
Bull-aogs, not merely of very doubtful courage, but absolutely 
couxzrds. I attribute this moral degeneracy to the practice of 
too close, or " in and in" breeding — a practice certain to pre- 

Judice the mental qualifications, even though external or physi- 

csd conformation remain apparently tlie ^axne. 



NATURAL HI8TORT OP THE DOO. 00 

The Bull-dog needs little description: he usually stands 
twenty inches in height — ^if smaller, he is so much the more 
highly esteemed ; — bis head is large and round ; his eyes small 
and far apart ; ears smaU and partly erect ; muzzle short, trun- 
cated, and turned upwards ; under jaw projecting beyond the 
np|per ; displaying the lower incisor teeth ; colour usually 
brindled, but white is the fancv colour; party colours, as black 
and white, &c., are to be condemned ; his tail must be fine as 
amah. 

The Bull-dog is remarkable for the obstinacy with which he 
keeps his hold, suffering himself to be dismembered — and the 
merciless experiment has, to the disgrace of human nature, 
been tried more than once — ^rather than quit it. .He is an ex- 
cellent water-dog, very faithful to his master ; but, unfortu- 
nately, haa become too notorious, from the inhuman and black- 
gnard sports for which he has been generaUy used, to be suf- 
fered to foUow the heel of any man who does not desire to be 
set down as a patron of ruffianism and infamy. 

The Bull-dog is not whoUy destitute of good qualities, as 
some writers have represented him to be. Besides his courage, 
he possesses strong attachment to his master : Mr. Jesse relates 
an anecdote of a Bull-dog, who having been accustomed to be 
his master's travelling companion, in his carriage, for several 
years, on his place being allotted to a new favourite, refused 
to ea^ sickened, pined, and died. 

A Bull-dog saved a shipwrecked crew, by towing a rope 
firom the vessel to the shore, after two fine Newfoundland dogs 
had perished in the attempt. I should attribute his success to 
his indomitable courage, which prevented him from giving up 
his exertions while life remained. 



THE PUG. 

This dog was a sort of miniature of the bull-dog, but without 
his courage. His muzzle was usually black ; the rest of his bod v 
of a buff colour ; and the tail curled tightly over the hinder end. 

The Pug has been replaced as a lady's pet, by the more ele- 
gant Italian greyhound, and the Blenheim and King Charles 
spaniels. He is now very rarely to be seen, and will soon be- 
come extinct, if, indeed, such has not already been his fate. 



THE BRITISH MASTIFF. 

This dog appears to owe liia onejixv \.o «.m\aX\s» ^^'^^Ns'^- 
dog o/ ancient JBiitain irith the oU T^JtooVVwoA. ViftNa.Ni»^- 



100 NATURAL HI8TORT OF THE DOG. 

ally of a brindled colour, or buff, with dark ears and muzzle. 
" Chicken,"* a dog belonging to the 43rd regiment, stood twen- 
ty-nine inches and a half in height at the shoulder. He was 
very gentle to human beings, but was not to be trifled with by 
his own kind ; for on one occasion he killed his brother in com- 
bat. Chicken was once passing up Union-street, at Plymouth, 
when he was beset by a troop of curs, who at length actually 
impeded him in his walk, and excited his anger, on which he 
paused, raised one of his hind legs, and astonished them all. 

The disposition of the Mastiff is characterized by couragei 
generosity, and forbearance : even the midnight marauder will 
be held by him uninjured, until human aid arriyes, proyided he 
refrain from struggle or resistance. The attacks of puny an- 
tagonists are despised ; but if they become intolerable, the no- 
ble Mastiff is satisfied with showing his contempt, or inflicting 
chastisement of rather a humiliating than a painful nature. 
The story of the Mastiff who, when greatly annoyed by the in- 
cessant barking of a little cur, took him by the bacK of the 
neck, and dropped him oyer a quay wall into the riyer, is well 
known ; but I recollect an instance of this nature, when the 
Mastiff, standing for a moment contemplating the struggles of 
his late tormentor, and perceiying that the current was likely 
to carry him away, actusdly sprang into the water, and rescued 
him from his dangerous position. 

Henry Y II. ordered a Mastiff to be hanged, because he had 
singly coped with and overcome a lion t And in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, when Lord Buckhurst was ambassador at 
the Court of Charles IX., a Mastiff is said to haye, alone and 
unassisted, successiyely engaged a bear, a leopard, and a lion, 
and pulled them all down. Stow relates an engagement which 
took place, in the reign of James I., between three Mastiffs and 
a lion. One of the dogs being put into the den, was soon dis- 
abled by the lion, who took him by the head and neck, and 
dragged him about. Another dog was next let loose, which 
shared the same fate ; but the third, on being put in, imme- 
diately seized the lion by the lip, and held him for a consider- 
able time, till being seyerely torn by his claws, the dog was 
obliged to quit his hold ; and the lion, greatly exhausted by 
the conflict, refused to renew the engagement, but taking a 
sudden leap oyer the dogs, fled into the interior part of his den. 
Two of the dogs soon died of their wounds ; but the third re- 
coyered, and was taken care of by the king's son, who said, 
^^ffe that had fought with the king of beasts should neyer after 
^bt with any inferior creature" — a iax iio\A.ex de(termination 

* Colonel Smith.. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 101 

than that arrived at by the usurper, Henry VII., as already de- 
tailed. 

The English Mastiff is now very rare, even more so than 
that of the Alps. He was in high esteem formerly as a watch- 
dog, but is now generally superseded in that dutv^ by the 
Newfoundland, who is more than competent to supply his place. 



CHAPTER XL 

MONGRELS. 

The principal Mongrels are : — 

The Lurcher, 
The Bandog, 
The Dropper, 
The Bull-terrier, 
The Alicant Dog, 
The Shock Dog, 
The Artois Dog, 
The Griffin Dog. 
The Kangaroo Dog. 

These Mongrel races may be quickly despatched. The 
LuBCHEB I have already treated of among uie rough grey- 
hounds. 

The Bandog is figured and described by Bewick. He seems 
to have been a sort of light mastiff, and has all the appearance 
of having been a cross between that dog and foxhound. He is 
now, I should imagine, quite extinct. 

THE DROPPEB 

Is a cross between pointer and setter. He is a most useful dog 
in the fieli and in high esteem '?r\\\i sv3kR\i ^Q\\si&ses^<^^ ^^s^^^ 
ing in a wet country, like a dog oi all\ ^ot\^ t>Ba ^^X«^*^sss«; 
Dropper** has been long famo\i& amoiL^ «^attok% ^"S^» 



102 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 



THE BULL-TEBBISB. 



A cross between terrier and bull-dog> varying^ in aspect ac- 
cording to the sort of terrier to which he owes descent : a lively, 
courageous dog, well adapted for all kinds of mischievous sport, 
and affording fewer unpleasant associations than the bull-dog, 
while he is hardier than the terrier. 



THE ALICANT DOG 



Is a small, silky-haired spaniel, with a pu^'s head and muzzle. 
I have often thought this dog is related to our King Charles 
and Blenheim breeds. 



THE SHOCK DOG. 



A small poodle, with silky hair instead of wool, and the 
short, turned up nose of the pug. 

THE ART0I8 DOG. 

Between the shock and the pug. 

THE GRIFFIN DOG. 

Apparently a cross between the sheep-dog and water dog. 
With the exception of the bull-terrier and dropper, none of 
these dogs are of any use. 

THE KANGAROO DOG. 

This is a tall and handsome dog, bred between a Mastiff, 
or Newfoundland, and greyhound, with a dash of bull-dog. 
It usually reaches the height of twenty-seven or twenty- 
eight inches at the shoulder ; is swift, strong, and with a fair 
average share of courage ; and is, consequently, about the 
best description of dog that could be employed in the chase of 
kangaroo— a chase attended with considerable danger to the 
V dogs, as the kangaroo often ripa up a dog itom *^«:?i to belly 
idi a single stroke of the hmd-foot. A. moTi%T^\S&V^«wSs3itfe 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 103 

the best for such a use, as it would not answer to expose va- 
luable or high bred dogs to so much risk. In appearance the 
Kangaroo dog is not very unlike the tiger-hound of South 
America. 



CHAPTER XII. 

GENERAL TREATMENT OF THE DOG. 

Those who desire to breed dogs of peculiar exceUence for 
themselves, will be certain of success, if they attend to one or 
two simple directions. Do not be satisfied with the appearance 
alone of either parent. Ascertain the pedigree as far as possi- 
ble ; for it not unfrequently happens that a whelp, having all 
the appearance of high breeding, will be accidentally produced 
when one parent is absolutely of a difPerent breed, or haply a 
common cur : from such stock, however, it would be unsafe to 
breed, as the probability is, in such cases, in favour of the 
whelps, more or less, taking after the bad blood, or, as it is 
called, throwing back. Ascertain the pedigree, therefore, for 
at least four generations. 

Let your next consideration be the age and health of the pa- 
rents. The male should be, at least, two years old, and the 
female at least, fifteen months. The male need not be reject- 
ed as unfit until his eighth year, provided he have worn well, 
not been hardly used, and have retained his health and vigour. 
The female, under similar circumstances, need not be rejected 
until her sixth year. 

Both parents shoidd be in perfect health. The female goes 
with young sixty-three days ; she has from four to thirteen 
young at a birth. The whelps are bom blind, and their eyes 
open about the eleventh or twelfth day. The dam should not 
be permitted to breed oftener than three times in two years, 
nor to rear more than five puppies ; and if delicate, she must 
not rear so many. If the wheVpa ai^ ^erj ^^ks\a&^R, ^^s«»- ^^ssv 
readily procure a foster-nurse) -^rVvo <iMi> V\\^ws\.^sSsJs^!&^>^'^ 
induced to adopt as many YrYveVpa «& ^wi^^^*^ ^^^-c^^asax^ ^» 



104 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 

remove from the dam. The whelps should not be suckled 
longer than six weeks ; but five, or even four, is sufficiently 
long, if necessity calls for their removal so soon ; the only 
difference being, that in such case they require more care at 
your hands. 

After weaning, the pups will feed voraciously, but should 
not be given as much as they will eat, or they will surfeit 
themselves. Their diet may consist of well-boiled oatmeal 
porridge, mashed potatoes, with skim milk, or newmilk, to di- 
lute the mess ; give it cool, and do not add the milk until the 
mess be cool. Do not make more than will be wanted at one 
time ; give the food fresh andjresh, and keep the vessels scru- 
pulously clean. Let the whelps have a bed of clean straw over 
pine shavings, or pine sawdust ; the turpentine contained in 
the wood wiB banish fleas. Let there be a supply of fresh wa- 
ter always within their reach, and let them have a free, open, 
airy court, in which to disport themselves. A grass-jplat is a 
g^at advantage ; and if you have no such accommodation, get 
some nice fresh grass cut twice or thrice a week, and lay it 
down in your court. The dog is the best physician in his own 
sickness, and wiU resort to the grass with much satisfaction if 
his stomach be out of order. 

At about four months old, the first set of teeth, or milk teeth, 
begin to drop out, and are replaced by the permanent set, which 
change is complete between the sixth and seventh month. The 
tusks have acquired their full length about the twelfth or thir- 
teenth month. At about two years old, a yellow circle makes its 
appearance around the base of the tusks, which gradually deve- 
lopes itself, with more and more intensity, until the thira year. 
About this time you will find the edges of the front, or cutting 
teeth, begin to be worn down, and the little nick on the crown 
of the lateral incisors to disappear. As the fourth year ap- 
proaches, the tusks lose their points, and the teeth present a 
gradual progress of decay, until the fifth or sixth year, when 
the incisors begin to fafi, and the tusks become discoloured 
over their entire surface. The sixth or seventh year finds the 
dog less lively than of old ; he is evidently no longer young; 
as soon as his eighth year has passed away, a few grey ham 
show themselves aroimd his eyes, and at the comers of the 
mouth. These appearances increase in intensity to the eleventh 
or twelfth year, when actual decrepitude usually sets in, and 
increases so rapidly, that by the fourteenth year, if the animal 
survive so long, he is a nuisance to YmnseAi «xA «Si. V^^V^tnn 
Ae conies in contact ; sores brealt out m daSweiA ^^^xX^ ^1 \^ 
i^odjr^ his whole carcass emits a fetid smeW, wsA\\.\%^^^^!8&.« 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 105 

cultj he can drag his aged limbs along : it is, then, a source of 
congratulation when death comes in, and releases him from his 
sufferings. 

DEWCLAWS. 

It frequently happens that puppies are bom with a fifth toe 
upon the hind foot ; this is called a dewclaw. It is usually 
only a false toe, possessing no connexion with the bony struc- 
ture of the limb ; but, in any case, should be taken off. Mr. 
Youatt calls the practice an inhuman one, and seems to think 
that this claw is seldom any hindrance to the dog. I see no 
great inhumanity in it ; for if it be done at the proper age — 
viz., between the third and fourth week — the operation is 
scarcely felt by the pup, and the tongue of the dam soon heals 
the wound. Let it also be properly done, with a pair of large, 
9harp scissors ; let the pup be firmly held by one person, while 
a second operates, and let the operator feel for the proper place 
to cut, and also not be nervous, but do his work with decision. 
The dewclaws, when left on, are constantly coming in the way, 
getting entangled in grass or roots, and rendering their pos- 
sessor quite unfit to enter cover, and ready, if he could speak„ 
to curse the maudlin sentimentality to which he owed the an. 
noyance. 

CHOPPING AND TAILING. 

Some persons like to crop the ears of a terrier ; others like 
them to be left in their natural condition. Mr. Youatt objects 
to cropping : so do many. I say nothing either for or against ; 
but if you be resolved on cropping, do it humanely ; let three 
cuts suffice. Draw the ears over the head until the points meet ; 
with a very sharp pair of scissors, cut both points off to the 
length you desire ; then with a single cut to each, from below 
upward, cut away the hinder portion of the flaps of the ears up 
to the point. 

In a week the ears will be well ; and I have never known 
deafness, or any other of the bad effects prognosticated by Mr. 
Youatt, to result from the operation. As I have already stated, 
however, I am not advocating the practice ; I merely give in- 
structions as to how it should be done in the most merciful 
manner. The tail of a well-bred pup should never be meddled 
with ; and if the dog be badly bred, and his tail, consequently, 
coarse, he is not worth keeping. 

In training your dogs, keep tjow temper ; ^'ssh^x <5«^^^ '^scNSi. 



106 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 

dog in vengeance for your own irritation ; gentleness does far 
more than yiolence will ever effect ; and a dog that requires 
the latter treatment had better be got rid of; he will ever be a 
nuisance. 

In proof of my assertion I adduce the following most inte- 
resting account of the performances of two dogs^ exhibited 
some time ago in London. The account was published in the 
"Lancet." 

" Two fine dogs, of the Spanish breed, were introduced by 
M. Leonard, with the customary French politesse — ^the largest, 
by the name of M. Philax ; the other, as M. Brae (or Spot). The 
former had been in training three ; the latter, two years. They 
were in vigorous health, and, having bowed very gracefully, 
seated themselves on the hearth-rug side by side. M. Leonard 
then gave a lively description of the means he had employed 
to develope the cerebral system in these animals ; how, from 
having been fond of the chace, and ambitious of possessing the 
best trained dogs, he had employed the usual course of train- 
ing — ^how the conviction had been impressed on his mind, that 
by gentle usage, and steady perseverance in inducing the ani- 
mal to repeat, again and again, what was required — not only 
would the dog be capable of performing that specific act, but 
that part of the brain, which was brought into activity by the 
mental effort, would become more largely developed ; and 
hence a permanent increase of mental power be obtained. This 
reasoning is in accordance with the known laws of the physio- 
logy of the nervous system, and is fraught with the most im- 
portant results. We may refer the reader interested in the 
subject, to the masterly little work of Doctor Verity, * Changes 
produced in the Nervous System by Civilization.* After fiiis 
introduction, M. Leonard spoke to his dogs in French, in his 
usual tone, and ordered one of them to walk, the other to lie 
down, to run, to gallop, halt, crouch, &c., which thejr per- 
formed as promptly and correctly as the most docile children. 
Then he directed them to go through the usual exercises of the 
mariege, which they performed as well as the best trained po- 
nies at Astley's. He next placed six cards of different colours 
on the floor, and, sitting with his back to the dogs, directed 
one to pick up the blue card, and the other the white, &c., va- 
rying his orders rapidly, and speaking in such a maimer, that 
it was impossible the dogs conld have executed his commands 
if they had not a perfect knowledge of the words. For in- 
stance, M. Leonard said, ' Philax, take the red card, and give it 
to Brae ; and Brae, take the white card, and give it to Philax.' 
TAe dog's instantly did this, and exchanged cards with each 



NATURAL BISTORT OF THE DOG. 107 

oUier. He then said, ' Philax, put your card on the green, 
and Bracy put yours on the blue,' and this was instantly per- 
formed. Pieces of bread and meat were placed on the floor, 
with figured cards, and a variety of directions were given to 
the dog^ so as to put their intelligence and obedience to a se- 
vere test. They brought the meat, bread, or cards, as com- 
manded, but did not attempt to eat or to touch, unless ordered. 
Philax was then ordered to bring a piece of meat, and give it 
to Brae, and then Brae was told to give it back to Philax, who 
was to return it to its place. Philax was next told he might 
bring a piece of bread, and eat it ; but, before he had time to 
swallow it, his master forbade him, and directed him to show 
that he had not disobeyed, and the dog instantly protruded the 
cmst between his lips. 

** While many of these feats were being performed, M. Leo- 
nard snapped a whip violently, to prove that the animals were 
80 completely under discipline that they would not heed any 
interruption. 

** After many other performances, M. Leonard invited a gen- 
tleman to play a game of dominos with one of them. The 
younger and slighter dog then seated himself on a chair at the 
table, and the writer and M. Leonard seated themselves oppo- 
fflte. Six dominos were placed on their edges, in the usual 
manner, before the dog, and a like number before the writer. 
The dog having a double number, took one up in his mouth, 
and put it in the middle of the table ; the writer placed a cor- 
responding piece on one side ; the dog immetUately played 
another correctly ; and so on imtil all the pieces were engaged. 
Other six dominos were then given to each, and the writer in- 
tentionally played a wrong number. The dog looked surprised, 
gtared veiy earnestly at the writer, growled, and finally barked 
angrily. Finding that no notice was taken of his remonstrances, 
he pushed away the wrong domino with his nose, and took up 
a suitable one from his own pieces, and placed it in its stead. 
The writer then played correctly ; the dog followed, and won 
the game. Not the slightest intunation could have been given 
by M. Leonard to the dog ; this mode of play must have been 
entirely the result of his own observation and judgment. It 
should be added, that the performances were strictly private. 
The owner of the do^s was a gentleman of independent for- 
tune, and the instruction of his dogs had been taken up merely 
as a curious and amusing investigation." 

Some years ago, a Spaniard, named Germondi, exhibited a 
company of performing dogs in the different towns of Great 
Britain and Ireland. In DnbAixk, ^\kst^\v^ \sl^^ ^rr&s^^^Svss^ C^^ 



108 N A TUBAL HISTORY OP THE DOG. 

occupied, with his company, the large building at the comer of 
D'OUer-street, which is now the handsome shop of Messrs. Kina- 
han. The performances of these dogs were extremely curious. 
They danced, waltzed, and pirouetted. One, in the costiune 
and character of a lady, sat down to a spinning wheel, which 
he kept in motion for a considerable time. 

The company was divided into two groups : one half appear- 
ing in dresses of a red colour, and the other being attired in blue. 
The blues occupied the model of a fortress, which the red troop 
attacked, drawing up their artillery in front, and opening a heavy 
fire upon the enemy, which the blues returned with their cannon 
from the fortress. The reds were, however, at length victo- 
rious ; the fortress tottered, and the reds dashed across the de- 
fences. Suddenly the works blew up with a tremendous crash, 
and several dogs, on both sides, lay motionless as they fell, ap- 
parently severely maimed, if not entirely dead. When the ef- 
fects of the explosion had died away, the proprietor advanced, 
and pulled the performers about as dead dogs, to the no small 
horror and amazement of the spectators ; but immediately on 
the dropping of the curtain, the apparently wounded or dead 
dogs sprang to their feet, and resumed their proper places. 

The next scene introduced one of the dogs a captive between 
two of his comrades, all attired in military costume. The cap- 
tive, being condemned as a deserter, was sentenced to be shot, 
and the sentence carried forthwith into execution by his canine 
comrades. On being fired at, he feU, struggled convulsively 
for a few seconds, then apparently died ; in this state he was 
dragged about the stage ; his comrades then placed him in a 
barrow, and wheeled him away. He subsequently appeared 
placed in a bier drawn by dogs, with likewise a canine driver, 
who flourished a whip over his companions, and with a proces- 
sion of the whole company attired as soldiers, moved slowly to 
the solemn dead march, deposited their comrade in the grave, 
and thus concluded their performance. These dogs were of 
various descriptions — ^pugs, poodles, mongrels. 

There was an interlude of youn^ puppies, who tumbled head 
over heels in various diverting attitudes, after which he intro- 
duced a fine specimen of buU-dog, which the exhibitor called 
his fire king. This dog was trained to exhibit in the midst of 
a brilliant display of fireworks, and nothing could exceed the 
courage he preserved when wholly surrounded by flames, or 
the resolution he manifested not to quit his position until the 
i&» was entirely extinguished. 
I adduce these interesting accounts, Vsv order to impress 
iipon my readers* mind the grand ieuct, t\vaA. ^e«fllciv«as^ vsL^T^ioN. 



KATUBAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 109 

craelty^ is the " modus operandi " likely to succeed with an ani- 
mal capable of so much intellectual culture as is the dog ; and I 
hope that the above anecdotes may touch other minds as deeply 
as they have mine, and save many a poor dog from the ill-usage 
to which he might otherwise have been subjected. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

DISEASES OF THE DOG, 

This portion of my subject might truly be made to occupy tre- 
ble the space of the present entire treatise. Such an extended 
dissertation, however, would not be within the limits of such a 
work as this ; nor do I think it would prove very useful. The 
less any one quacks his dog the better. If a veterinary surgeon 
can be called in, let him prescribe, and do you implicitly fol- 
low his directions. It may happen that you are not so circum- 
stanced as to be able to obtain such assistance ; then let nature 
work her own will, and, in nine cases out of ten, you will find 
her successful. StiQ, however, though nature does not require 
absolute aid in her operations, she requires the removal of ob- 
stacles — of such attendant circumstances as might interfere with 
her operations. I shall not pretend to offer more than a little 
advice on such subjects generally ; and I may here observe, 
that when a human surgeon happens also to be a dog-fancier, 
you will find his opinion and advice far more valuable than 
that of half a hundred quack pretenders. 



RABIES, OR canine MADNESS, 

SOMETIMES IMPROPBRLY CALLED HYDROPHOBIA. 

Hydrophobia, a term expressing fear of water, is, when ap- 
plied to this malady as occurring in the dog, grossly incorrect, 
a do^ labouring under rabies ^ni^Vxvg ^^Suet ^^\. vss^ ^^- 
lingly, hut greedily to the very \aal. 
/ need scarcely say that no c\rraXVj^\.Te«JccaK^^«^ '8C*'«^'»^^'= 



110 NATURAL HI8TOBT OF THE DOG. 

a dog has been seized with this terrible disease : my duty, there- 
fore, merely consists in describing the symptoms which indicate 
the approach of dangper, that the affected animal may be timely 
destroyed ; and also to point out the treatment to be pursued 
in the event of a fellow-creature having been bitten. One of 
the earliest symptoms of rabies in the dog is restlessness. He 
is constantly turning round and round before he will lie down ; 
his countenance becomes anxious ; his eves bloodshot ; he fan- 
cies that he sees objects around him which have no real exii^ 
ence, and he snaps at the empty air ; his fondness for his mas- 
ter increases, and with it his propensity to lick the hands and face 
— a filthy practice at any tmie, and one most dangerous ; — ^the 
appetite becomes depraved, his natural food is neglected, and, at 
the same time, every sort of fflthy trash is greedily devoureid ; 
eating his ovm excrement is aa early symptom, and so sure a one, 
that the moment a dog is seen doing so he should be destroyed, 
or, at all events, carefully confined. 

Rubbing the paws against the sides of the mouth. If this 
be done to remove a hoTief the mouth will remain open ; but 
when it takes place as the precursor of rabies, the jaws close 
after the rubbing ceases. 

Soon follows an insatiable thirst ; so insatiable that the poor 
animal often plunges his whole muzzle into the water; and 
here you may observe spume left upon the surface. Soon the 
dog falls or staggers, and sometimes, but not invariably, be- 
comes delirious. Death speedily ensues. 



DUMB MADNESS 

Is chiefiy characterized by stupidity, and, at the same time, 
restlessness of demeanour ; the tongue becomes of a dark co- 
lour, and much swollen ; the animal is also constantly rubbing 
its jaws with its paws, as if seeking to remove a bone from its 
throat ; and is m general unable to keep its mouth shut, or 
the tongue within it. 

If a persoQ be bitten by a dog supposed to be rabid, let the 
bitten part be carefully excised, and Uquid caustic copiously ap- 
plied to the wound thus formed. Babies has been known to 
supervene after seven months from the infliction of the bite, 
having lain dormant in the system during that period. Al- 
though horror at the sight of liquids is not present in this dis- 
Gase, when occurring in the dog, it is on© oi \\a stocoa-ge^X <sha- 
^^cteristica, when occurring in the Yivnaaik suifeiecX^Mi^VJftft ^a&- 
«««» i» theuj with propriety, tenued HTT>«.oTB.oiiifc.. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. Ill 



CANKER IN THE EAR, 

A disease to which all water-dogfs are very subject, probably 
produced by a detenmnation of blood to the head, resulting 
from that part not sharing in the general immersion. The 
treatment should, therefore, commence with keeping the af- 
fected dogfs from water. The earliest symptoms are, shaking 
the head, holding it to one side, and violent scratching of the 
ear. When these are perceived, the ears should be well washed 
with warm water and soap ; and then syringed out with a so- 
lution of sugar of lead, in the proportion of about a teaspoonfhl 
of the lead to one pint of distilled water. If distilled water 
caxmot be procured, use rain water. Besides this, the washing 
should be repeated twice or thrice daily, and the bowels of the 
dog kept open by a daily laxative ; if these remedies fail, a 
aeton must be run through the back of the neck, and strong 
doses of (does given every second day. If you can, apply to a 
veterinary surgeon. 



JAUNDICE. 

The dog appears very subject to this disease. Its symptoms 
are obvious. The conjunctiva, or " white of the eye," becomes 
sa£Pused with a vellow hue, and soon after, the same hue spreads 
over all the skm ; the nose and mouth are dry and parched ; 
the dog loses appetite ; seeks concealment ; becomes weak 
and emaciated ; vomits greenish matter, sometimes tuiged with 
blood ; loses consciousness ; dies. 

Much depends on taking this disease in time ; but it is so in- 
sidious and deceptive in its advances, that two or three weeks 
often elapse before its discovery. In such cases the animal is 
lost. 

If early perceived, give Epsom salts, combined with muci- 
lage of gum arable, or very well-boiled gruel. K you think 
the disease has only just made its appearance, an emetic will 
be of great service, and common salt will answer the purpose, 
if nothing else is at hand. Small doses of calomel and colo- 
cynth, in the form of pill, given at night, and followed by an 
aperient in the morning, w&l generally prove successful. If 
much fever be present, bleeding shoTMbe tci«(nt»l\$^. 

When appetite returns, tVie twi^ ft\Lwi\!^.\»'^fik3i^ Tsa^^e?*^^ 
\n Btaall quantities. 



112 NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 



WORMS. 

The dog is very subject to the accumulation of worms in the 
intestines. They are of three kinds : ^sean'cfes, or small thread- 
like worms, not more than half an inch in length. These are 
chiefly present in the rectum ; and hence the ordinary symp- 
toms of their presence is the dog dragging his fundament along 
the ground. Puppies are very subject to these worms. 

The teres, like the earth-worm in form and appearance, but 
of a white colour. The tcmia, or tapeworm, several inches in 
length, and flat for nearly its whole extent. There is also 
another description of worm that is, I think, peculiar to very 
young puppies, and which appear to be generated in their in- 
testines in great quantities. This worm is from two to four 
inches in length, of a dirty white colour, round, and pointed at 
both extremities. Sometimes these worms collect in balls or 
masses, to the number of a dozen or more in each mass. Many 
young puppies fall away in flesh, until they actually reach- the 
extreme of emaciation ; fits supervene, and death soon carries 
them away. The deaths are attributed to distemper; but worms 
are the true cause, and these of the description I have indi- 
cated. I have found the following treatment most efficacious ; 
and I have had very great experience in rearing puppies : — 
Give, say on Monday, a small piQ formed of Venice turpentine 
and flour, from the size of a very minute pea to that of a small 
marble, according to the size and age of the pup. The for- 
mer will suffice for Blenheim or King Charles pups, Italian 
greyhounds, &c. ; the latter for bloodhounds, Newfoundlands, 
mastifPs, &c. On Tuesday, give a small dose of castor oil ; a 
teaspoonful to the smaller, a tablespoonful to the larger breeds ; 
in neither case, however, quite full. On Wednesday give no* 
thing ; on Thursday give the turpentine as before ; ^n Friday, 
the oil ; on Saturday, nothing ; and so on. 

Keep your puppies' beds dry, clean, and sweet. Do not feed 
them too often, or on food of too nutritious a quality. Puppies 
should not be fed oftener than three times a day. The morn- 
ing and evening meals may be given at 9 a.m., and at 7 p.m., 
and should consist of vegetables— potatoes, oatmeal, &c. — ^well- 
hoUeA, and given with milk. At two, you may give meat with 
the mess, but not too abundantly. Between the meals give a 
€innk of buttermUk, or milk, and watet. 
The general symptoms of tlie pTeaetLce oi ?iSL ^^ asx^ ^I^^sr 
worms, are, fetid breath, staring coat,NOT^R\V^, w\»\a^\c«!^ 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 113 

appetite, violent purging, or obstinate constipation, with great 
emaciation, sometimes fits. Venice turpentine is a good remedy, 
and is effective in slight cases. Aloes are useful for dislodging 
vronns from the rectum, as thev pass down the intestines, almost 
unchanged ; but powdered glass is the safest and most effica- 
cious ; give it pills formed with butter and ginger, and covered 
with soiit paper. 

MANGE 

Is of three kinds— the common mange, red mange, and 
scabby mange. 

Common mange is too well-known to need description. It 
readily yields to cleanliness, with small alterative doses of sul- 
phur and nitre given daily. If neglected, it runs into scabby 
mange ; the skm breaks out into blotches ; the dog becomes 
emaciated ; the belly hard and swollen ; and death wlQ sooner 
or later ensue. Use aperient medicine for a day or two ; then 
for a week give the alterative medicines above mentioned; after 
which have the animal well washed with soft soap and warm 
water ; then rub his entire body with the following: — 

Train Oil . . . One Pmt, 



Turpentine 
Naphtha 
Oil of Tar 
Soot 



One Ounce, 
One Ounce, 
One Ounce, 
One Ounce, 

and Sulphur in powder sufficient to make the stuff of a 

proper consistence. 

This is to remain on the dog for three days, during 
which time he must be kept dry and warm, and fed sparingly ; 
let it be washed off on the fourth day, with soft soap and warm 
water, in which some common washing-soda has been dis- 
solved ; give clean straw, plenty of exercise, and cooling diet, 
and the dog will speedily get weU. 

This mode of treatment will apply to red mange also ; but in 
its case, a little mercurial ointment may be added to the above 
preparation. 

Puppies are very liable to display a mangy-looking coat, at 
the age of from two to four months. The hair falls off in spots, 
and the skin becomes itchy, dry, and scaly. This is not genuine 
mange ; but if neglected^ is apt to run into it. At tlm early 
stage it is easily cured, by washing wi£h soft soap and water, 
£uid cbange of bed|iing ; gWing ai\&o ^\^<& ^SQ^!^^tSk!(a \sl*^^\';:^v:^ 
dailjr, and in very minute qoanlVdea. T'W «:^'^«s:«k\a'«ia\ss>aR 



114 NATURAL HI8T0BT OF THE DOG. 

only an effort of nature to throw off the old or puppy coat of 
hair, and assume the new one. 

Change of feeding is serviceahle in the treatment of mange ; 
hut it is a mistake to suppose that this must always he to a re- 
duced regimen. In many cases, mange is only the offspring 
of filth and hunger ; and in these cases the change must he to 
clean hedding and generous diet. The change of food, how- 
ever, should not he sudden, otherwise not only may the exist- 
ing disorder he aggravated, hut other and less manageable 
affections may be superinduced. 



DISTEMPEB. 

The most fatal disorder, next to rabies, to which the canine 
race is liable. Nearly every dog is certain to have it at some pe- 
riod of his existence ; but in general it makes its appearance dur- 
ing the first year. If an old dog get this disease, you need not 
hope to save him. 

Distemper is strongly marked in its symptoms, though they 
are not invariably of the sam^ character. They are usually 
loss of appetite, dulness, fever, weakness of the eyes, a dis- 
charge from the nose, a short husky cough, discharge from 
both eyes and nose, a peculiar and fetid smell, emaciation, 
sometimes ^.s, and when they appear, I should prognosticate a 
fatal termination to the complaint. Dogs in a fit are sometimes 
mistaken for mad : let it be understood, then, fits are never pre- 
sent in rabies. 

The distemper is a disease of the mucous surfaces, and usu- 
ally conunences in nasal catarrh. If the disease be detected in 
the first stage, bleeding will be most useful, and that pretty co- 
pious ; give an emetic, and follow it up by a gentle purg^ve ; 
if — as is generally the case when the above treatment does not 
effect a cure — inflammation of the lungs supervenes, you must 
take more blood, give more aperient medicme, with occasional 
emetics. If the animal become weak, and is apparently sink- 
ing, give mild tonics^ as gentian. Quinine ; and if he will not 
eat, put some strong beef jelly down his throat. A seton in 
the back of the neck is often useful, but should not be used in- 
discriminately. If possible, consult a veterinary surgeon, and 
pJace your dog in his hands. 
The more generous the breed, the more liable is the dog to 
Iiave distemper, and td sink under it. C\a-^<(^^% o^ low degree 
bardlvknow what it is. The liardy a\ie^\iet^^oft ^I^^i^Sunq.^ 
^be hare it at all; g^ets over it unaided, 'm a. dsKj a« V.-w^. 



NATURAL HISTORY OF THE DOG. 115 



DIARRHCEA. 

Wait for a day or two, to ascertain if the discharge will cure 
itself; if it continue, give castor oil, with a few drops of lauda- 
num. 

COSTIYENESS. 

Change the diet ; give gruel and slops ; and let the dog have 
full liberty ; boiled liver will be found useful. If these mea- 
sures fail, give small doses of castor oil. 

I have not gone into the subject of canine diseases at any 
great length ; for I hold all quackery in great abhorrence. The 
less a dog is drugged the better ; and he will never be unwell 
if allowed sufficient exercise, and be judiciously fed. When 
illness presents itself, if you can procure advice, do so at once ; 
if you cannot, use some simple remedy. K you must yourself 
bleed your dog, tie a ligature round his neck, and the vein will 
rise. Bleed the dog standing on his feet ; when he droops his 
head, or appears weak, cut the cord ; the bleeding will stop of 
itself without the aid of a pin. 

Warts may be removed by the aid of caustic, and sometimes 
a ligature. 

I do not think that I have now left any necessary or useful 
information undetailed. I have been induced to present this 
book to the reader, by the conviction that no work on dogs 
that has yet appeared, has emanated from the pen of a dog- 
Jancier, and that no other person is capable of satisfactorily 
handling the subject. Whether or not I have succeeded in 
doing so, will speedily appear firom the reception my work 
will meet with from the best of all judges— the public. 



THE END.